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Mark Seeley, University of Minnesota meteorologist and climatologist, answers listener questions about the weather. Topics include weather guide, ball lightning, and weather cycles. Program contains pledge drive segments.

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For some of us have a certain age. That's very familiar. Good afternoon everybody. This is midday on Minnesota Public Radio. I'm Gary. Ikid Sasha is laying in is whether this hour she is the producer of are all things considered program Mark Seeley climatologist. Meteorologist is here, and he'll be taking some weather questions later this hour right now. We're urging all of you who are listening who not yet. Had a chance to call us this membership drive to do. So get your name in for the big Orlando drawing that there will be hell tomorrow. Today is the last day to get in on that drawing most importantly. This is a great opportunity to show your support for good-quality news and information programming if you listen to mid-day, we sure hope if you have not yet called is that you'll take advantage of this opportunity lots of volunteers standing by a 22728 e 11227 2811 outside the Twin Cities one 800-227-2811 and Sasha we need toWork right along here. Sure. Do we've got a $5,000 goal this our my forecast is that we're going to make it. All right. We're at Go and I think we're going to do it. We've got three colors on the line right now. And we've got a whole roomful of volunteer to sure would like to see their time. Well spent by answering more phone calls to to 72811 is the number to call whole deal should take you about 90 seconds to get signed up and you'll be on board as a member of Minnesota Public Radio supporting programs, like midday everybody who calls whether or not we all entered into the drawing for the MLT vacations for Florida Orlando. And what what the deal is here. Are you get the round trip tickets to Orlando hotel accommodations for 7 nights. So you hang out down there for Six Days Seven Nights to get to see, you know, travel around to Disney World Epcot Center all the all the spots in that part of Florida Daytona Beach. If you want to go over there to Kennedy Space Center is in within an easy Drive lots and lots of things to do in the Orlando area and somebody who is listening to Minnesota Public Radio will win. This trip. It's not like this is a whole universe and somebody in Albuquerque New Mexico will be the winner know it'll be somebody who actually listens and who is called this week, Minnesota Public Radio. So might as well be all you have to do is give us a call at 227-6000 or outside the Twin Cities one eight hundred two two seven. 2811 How do I say I think I gave out the wrong number? I just gave out the wrong number. That's the number I should have given out yet. 12811 and after outside the Twin Cities just put an 800 on the front of it to 72811 is the number to call lots of membership levels to join that lot of people start at the $66 level. We have a special. Thank you gift available at the $12.50 per month level $150 for the full year. And that is the weather book by Jack Williams and Mark Seeley a pretty good deal is your man. This is a wonderful book Gary Bob Potter and I talked about this review this book on Morning Edition some time ago. The second edition is out fresh this winter. It's a terrific book lot of Science school teachers use it. It's wonderful for those that are curious about storms the nature of storms dissecting a hurricane finding out what El Nino is a whole host of things and the graphics are the best in the business. So I really highly recommended. I've never met anyone. Who did not like this book? It's a terrific terrific idea for people to keep around show their kids and maybe we can generate some more interest in the weather yet. Yeah, and you don't have to be a big-time scientist do appreciate know what's written in layman's language and I as I said, it's got the best illustrations of almost any book I've ever encountered. So it's a it's a terrific a reward for those that want to pledge a hundred and fifty dollars are 1250 a month. It's well worth it. All you have to do is give us a call at 227-6000 number again to to 72811 here is the right number to call to make your pledge to to 72811 to to 72811 outside the Twin Cities one 802-227-2811. You know Sasha after all these years you think a guy could at least you're the right phone number. And get a chance to ask you in just a minute or self Gary we got some new number is here and it looks like we've actually got $3,900 you have to go this hour. So that's kind of a asleep Deep by goal. But we think that the midday audiences up to it. Midday is one of our longest standing programs are on Minnesota Public Radio, you know what the place where you can tune in to get the latest news current current issues Collins your chance to ask questions. That's it. We provide for you two hundred days a year Monday through Friday and a few I have just started listening to midday and just realized $5 or something interesting on every single day during my lunch hour. This is how it works. We put the radio on there for you. But we also need you to call in and become a member the number to call to to 72811 really do the set aside your new now. Are you have other things to do here eating lunch or doing this that the other than driving around but a lot of you do to an ant over the noon hour to catch the national Press Club broadcast. Many of the documentaries that we produce here in Minnesota Public Radio in that come to us from around the country of broadcast over the noon hour. Lots of call-ins. We've had to be an all the governor candidates in or most of a couple of them we messed for a couple of reasons. But anyway virtually all the governor candidates have been in talk to Michael Oster home last week about the frightening Prospect of biological warfare. I'm still having nightmares about that Walter mondale's been on. I mean, is there a number of interesting people who stopped by here during the course of a week and you have a chance day in day out to listen to them to call in with your questions and comments catch up on full-length speeches from people. Would you normally don't get to hear generally, you know, the best you can do is a 15 second sound bite someplace while here you go to a full hour for people to do actually expanded and explain themselves. I think it's pretty good program. I think you probably agree with that and I hope you will Pollyanna and let us know that you think that's a worthwhile thing to have on your radio. Even if you're all paid up, you know might as well call and get in on the drawing for a Florida and those of you who aren't members boy would really need your support. There are ninety thousand people who I've been carrying The Frayed hear some of them aren't going to be able to renew and what we're asking you to do is to step forward take their place. Pledge what you can afford $66 or $120 hundred-fifty take advantage of the special weather book by Jack Williams, whatever you can afford $240. A lot of people pledged $20 a month. It isn't so much how much it's that you do make a pledge. That's the important that give us a call and let us know you're out there to 27208 11 or one 802-227-2811 7 callers on the line. One thing we know about the video. Midday audience. They know how to find the phone right? I mean every call every calling you do you've got a full Bank of colored people waiting to ask questions of a guess that you have on so, we know that it's others. There's a phone there and people know how to get to it know how to dial this time. We're just asking you to dial a different number that is 227-2811 and become a member of Minnesota Public Radio. If you find yourself saying to people around the dinner table say I heard an interesting thing on public radio now is the time to call in and support the programming that you value to to 72811. Are you near a computer? Maybe you're a little shy I don't want to call in the phone. I mean after all it's kind of a weird deal, maybe your computer literate unlike some of us you have a computer handle. All you have to do is contact their website. Www. Dr. That Sam and Away you go you'll be able to sign write-up. Send us an email for that matter pledge at MPR. And we will get you signed up. If you prefer to do it by computer, whatever is easiest. The important thing is that you you take some action here for callers of being signed up for that MLT vacation for 4 to Orlando, Florida. Not a bad deal as marks for what what's the forecast on their March about 80° by next week. They're supposed to be up to 81 degrees with light winds and plenty of sunshine that it'd be terrible. Yeah, sachimo joins us all you have to do to get in on the drawing this to call us. We will enter your name in the drawing. You don't even have to pledge but really that's course what this is all about trying to raise some money to pay for programs that you listen to. Probably snapping up that weather book that Mark Seeley was just talking about really a nice guy that explains why I've hurricanes are going to become more and more a comment. It's tells you how a tornado Works tells you what different kinds of snowflakes snowflakes of shapes of snow look like everything you wanted to know and Sons are pretty pretty interested in the weather when she say absolutely absolutely and it's available at the $12.50 per month level $150 again, the contributions to Minnesota Public Radio are tax-deductible. And as you go about figuring out your taxes, it's always nice to be reminded that there is a little bit of a break there and it helps the important thing though again is to is to show your support for good quality programming for callers on the line. Would love to hear from you again. It's too to 72811 outside the Twin Cities one 800-227-2811 or volunteers will be here. We're going to talk with Mark Seeley a little bit about the weather now in to take some more weather question. But again, if you have pledged to make we hope you do if you do the number is 222-720-8011 in the Twin City metropolitan area. Now. If you have a weather question for Mark Seeley, I have a different phone number for you. This is the one that I've been erroneously giving out at this hour and that's the old familiar. I'll call in number to 276 thousand in the Twin City area to 276 thousand in the Twin City area. And if you're calling from outside the Twin Cities and you've got a question for Mark Seeley 1-800 to +422-828-227-6000 or one 800-242-2828 Marca before we get to weather questions have a broadcasting question for you. How did you tell us the story of how you got involved in doing the regular weather commentaries and Morning Edition? Was it 5 years ago now you've been doing this? 92 actually Bruce McDonald a former producer of Morning Edition at the time but Bob Edwards had taken a sabbatical from the NPR program and red Barber had passed away the person that the talk to about baseball and life in general every morning about 10 to 7. And so there was opportunity to fill that slot and with the interest so widespread in Minnesota in the weather Bruce and I got together with Bob Potter and did a few trial runs on commentary about Christmas time 1992 and and Bob said something to the effect will that guy seems to know what he's talking about? Why don't we invite him back? So so anyway, that's a little bit about how we had started. We'd stayed with that morning time slot just before 7 on Friday mornings, and it seems to work well. Do I ever wish that you had made this like a professional one of the TV weather casters? I guess in retrospect know I'd probably be suffering from high blood pressure ulcers and being being on the radio is is a challenge to To me to keep my head straight and try to stay calm and try to think logically and I think it's a challenge for most people that way though. I suppose once you're in the business a while and an Old Pro like yourself, you don't get too nervous about it. Now. He just get absent-minded me about the wrong phone number and everything else. Now for people who weren't with us the last hour a quick reminder. What kind of what kind of weather forecast are we looking for in March here now after we had our on seasonably warm weather and it threw them through the winter then March comes in like a lion cold and windy. What's the rest of March look like exactly. Well now despite what we're experiencing at the moment and will experience for another day or two with this Arctic air mask the Outlook remains for temperatures in March average warmer than normal for the month has a whole precipitation could be near normal or just slightly either side of normal. There's no significant. Malaysian and precipitation expected some kind of a tournament to the snow storm is likely probably what we got a whole string of them coming up. I think we mentioned last hour with the girls Basketball Championships coming up this week sure enough. It looks like we're going to warm up again by Friday, but we're also going to have some storms moving across the state, although right now for the southern part of the state. It looks like rain rather than snow. Well, we'll keep an eye on the weather and lots of callers are already on the line with questions for Mark Seeley. If you'd like to join them will give us a call. If you have a question for Marcus sale. 8227 6000 Twin City area number to 276 thousand. I'll try the Twin Cities. The number would be 1 800 to +422-828-227-6004. 1 800-242-2828. And I first caller is from St.Paul Glen Glen Place and I hear some people no scuff it off and I just want what is ball lightning bolt. Lightning is a discharge in the atmosphere that is seen as a spiritual glow. And it generally to be seen has to occur at at low low low elevation somewhere near the not very far off the ground rather short-lived and it's rarely observed. But some people think it's a myth but it's really not there. There's been documented cases. It's it is very rarely observed though. And usually you have to have almost oppressive Lehigh dew point temperatures at the surface. I mean the kind that we all just hate, you know, you would sit around just sweat sitting do points in the 70s are typical of sometimes even low 80s. So you have real saturated air and you have a large build-up of a positive positive and negative charges close enough to the surface now the nature of why it's spherical. I don't have the answer. Maybe some other meteorologist knows that but it's the only form of lightning that is spiritual in nature. You mention the dew point and width Summer not too far away. Now, would you remind us once again? What is dew point a dew point is technically the temperature that you need to cool the air to cause condensation to cause the water vapor in that are to condense out and we use it primarily as an index of comfort because the higher the dew point the less our body is able to dissipate the heat energy that we generate so we begin to feel quite uncomfortable because we can't discharge or let that heat energy go out to the atmosphere and what to typically what point do we get out early start being becoming uncomfortable with what's the typically in the mid-60s do points in the mid-60s. We can feel pretty much regardless of what the air temperature is if the dew points in the mid-60s and certainly do points above 70 are very uncomfortable dew points above. DD are exceedingly rare in Minnesota. We've only had the whole just a handful of occasions this century when we've been above 80 but those are more like you'd encounter in the Philippines or somewhere in the equatorial regions and Fortunately, most of the time we have even when we have these spells of high dew point in the summer mid-sixties to high 60s. We typically get a frontal passage or a thunderstorm and then the air that fills in behind his back down in the old 50 to 55 degree dew point and it almost feels like somebody turned on the air conditioner at least always here. It's not the heat. It's the humidity. How does Humidity relate to dew point will humidity in fact is analogous to dew point relative humidity is a is a measure of the relative quantity of water vapor in the air compared to what it could hold at a given temperature. So if you have 80 degrees are or something like that and the and the relative humidity is 80% It means that 80% of the possible potential water vapor that could be held in that 80 degrees are is present. So it's it's it's exactly fits the definition. It's a relative term, and it doesn't really mean a lot to know the relative humidity unless you know what the air temperature is whereas for Comfort indexing. If you simply know the dew point regardless of what the air temperature is, you can get a pretty good idea in terms of what human Comforts going to be climatologist meteorologist. Dr. Mark Seeley is with us to inches from the University of Minnesota course, many of you here Mark every Friday on our Morning Edition program. He's been good enough to come by or midday program today to take your weather related questions. Again, if you have a question, here's the number to call. It's 2276 thousand in the Twin City area to 276 thousand outside the Twin Cities 1 800 to +422-828-227-6000 or 1 800 242. 2828 these are different numbers, of course in our pledge numbers and we should note that our volunteers are continually take pledges on the other punch number 2 to 7:20 at 11. So keep that was phone's busy as well as caller is from St. Peter and go ahead place. They get a warning from an Indian. And tells them that every seventh year is a very big winter and then every 21st winter is a really big winter need it to support his theory. Boy, that's a that's a good question. There's no 7 to 21 year consistent cycle that I've observed in our Minnesota climate record, but it doesn't discount the notion that during the time of of their life on the Prairie in Minnesota 19th century. Maybe there was some type of a cycle going on. Of course. Our observations would be somewhat limited we'd have to look at the old Pioneer records, but maybe there was an interval of 7 to 21 years. In fact, I'm having been asked a question. I might look at that when I get back to the office Gary because often we don't look at the 19th century record in Minnesota because it's so sparse, you know, we don't have that many in terms of communities are observations to look at but of course the Indians that live back then probably a pass along some of this wisdom from one generation to another so maybe this was a cycle observed in in 18th and 19th century, Minnesota, how do I really don't know? How are we on usually obsessed with the weather around here Mark and most people just kind of let the weather, and deal with it as it arrives. We spend a lot of time talking about it anticipated it reflecting on it. I think the cultures that live in in the maritime climates or maybe equatorial climates. Maybe there is not the sensitivity. Maybe there is but in my view here in the Upper Midwest we have to be sensitive because it has such a significant impact on us and it has impacts on our heating bills that has impacts on what we do in the garden how we dress how we plan a trip and we were subject to such wide swings in in terms of our weather dramatic over a very short interval. For example, the all-time largest temperature change in Minnesota Gary in a single day is 71°. Alright, imagine that you have a 71 degree afternoon high and your overnight low goes down to something like zero or one, you know, I mean who's going to be able to cope with that or we've had an all-time two-day temperature swing in the in northern Minnesota of 85°. I mean, you know, so remarkably over just a short. Of time. I think it's being smart to be sensitive to that Archie your question, please at least anecdotal evidence that weather records of all sorts of being broken all over in about so read that this is happening like around the world and not just during this El Nino year, like there's record snow and record rain record. Is it true that records are being broken in recent years at record rates and does this indicate a more volatile global climate. That's a very good question. I can I'm sorry. I'm going to have to hedge on the answer because I'm not up to speed with the analysis globally of the number of Records. But some of the scientific literature has suggested that we are in a period of increased variability generations of people that lived in the mid-twentieth century through the forties the 50s to 60s the 70s were not subject to the variability that we are now seeing occur, especially with respect to temperature and precipitation. What are the overall frequencies of record-setting events are increasing. I'm not sure there wasn't analysis done for the central Us. In fact, just recently just this last Fall by the Midwest climate Center in Illinois. And they suggested at least for the last 50 years that the number of record-setting events and storms was not increasing but that may be countered by a number of other Geographic areas where it has been increasing. I still can't get past that figure of 71 degrees in one day a swing that's amazing that that is possible. If you have if you consider a springtime situation such as we have right today, for example, March 10, and you have a high Sun angle. You have an increasing day length and you have a tremendous change in Ayer Mass. So you go from a southeasterly warm flow coming up from the Gulf States and suddenly you have a shift to a sharp Northerly flow out of say Hudson Bay or something like that. So we hid we have advection that is the transfer of an air mass working in conjunction with The diurnal or daily cycle of the sun. Then you can have tremendous shifts 71°. Wow, I guess this our climatologist meteorologist at the University of Minnesota. If you have a weather-related question for a marcelite, give us a call Twin City area number is 227-6002 276 thousand. I'll try the Twin Cities. You can reach us toll-free. That number is 1 800 to +422-828-227-6000 or one 800-242-2828 market last year at this time. There was a lot of concern about the looming floods in our area and of course most of that concerned prove to if anything to be on the short side, I mean it really turned out awful. I have we gotten how good are we at predicting floods will a Following last year. I think there's been some amendments made to the manner in which a flood forecast. Has approached now and I think they've all been for the better this year didn't give us a test case to really see how much we could have improved because it's been a very quiet year in the Upper Midwest in terms of floods. Although the one interesting thing was last week, you know, there were Chris going down the Red River of the North and the tributaries that we're all timer least, you know with the warm February. We had the landscape starting to thaw out and drain until they actually saw Chris going down. Although they didn't exceed flood stage by enormous value is like last year did but so it remains to be seen all the modifications amendments to the flood forecasting methodologies and models that were brought into play as a result of last year. The test cases are yet ahead of us to see how well they're going to work. But I think all the people I know that work in this business are very sincere individuals very concerned. They're very good scientist, and I think the on the other side of the coin Gary another thing is they work to improve the communications. You mentioned last year how we did talk about this in January February March and and we we gave plenty of discussion to it down and describing the potential but in the end it almost seemed like we should have been out in some of those communities screaming and hollering on the street curb and raising flags and trying to get more and more attention. I think as result of this the flood coordination community of the people that do put out the watches and warnings are seeing to it that they're doing a better job of communicating. So what when the threat does present itself, they're really making sure that every city manager city engineer US mayor's office all the people in The Flood Control District are well aware of what's going on. Now, of course, we're coming up on tornado season how good it we gotten after at forecasting those and getting warnings out in time so that people know they should head for the basement Willis. What is I've seen with the new radar systems that have been deployed now for the last whole half-dozen years or so are suggesting that there have been technical improvements in detecting conditions that are conducive to the formation of tornadoes and that this should improve the lead time. There's been a few reports of this by The Weather Service elsewhere in a particularly. I'm thinking of Southern Plains in Southeastern us that indeed have documented improved lead times and getting out These Warnings. I'm not sure that we've seen any manifested yet in Minnesota. Maybe we have but again, I think the technology now is in place to do a better job and I think we should expect a better job and when can we look for our first tornado is a role will probably be having severe weather week. I forgot I think it's usually an April when will go through the the practice sessions testing the sirens doing the educational program National Weather Service will guide us through that. Severe weather awareness so that we're all prepared for that. So typically that's around the time it starts in the Northern Plains states is a anytime from April onward back to the Fallen shabaab your question from Archie Lee place and headaches, like weather forecasting of barometric pressure rising and dropping and giving a person a headache and when the storm front moves through the headache is gone and the barometric pressure changes in front of the weather. Do you have any kind of input on that? That's a very good question. And and I think I'm certainly a believer in that phenomena. I think it's been well-documented the Germans called that they use the word Vetter schmertz for that which means weather pain, but it's it's been well-documented that some people are quite sensitive to changes in barometric pressure be at in the form of joint pain knees ankles elbows Etc or in headache pain because there's a physiological adjustment this required and maybe it's also related to a whole host of other things in terms of human physiology, but I'm a believer that that indeed happens in there are people that can tell the approach of a low pressure system or tell the approach of a high pressure system particularly when there are large pressure differences between the two systems Tom your question, please Yes, I my question is about weather averages It's Not Unusual that you'll go from one channel to the next or one source to one another source, and you'll hear the average low for the day today is 1411. So my question is how do we arrive at advertising average load? Yeah, I'm a bit perplexed by that to there shouldn't be because the World Meteorological organization of which most World Government subscribe has mandated that for for now at least we're to be using the 1961 through 1990 averages as what we call so-called normals. So whenever we refer to the normal climate or the average climate of any point on Earth, we should be saying the average temperature is this the average rainfall is this in that context the 61 through 90. I think what happens with all the private and Commercial Weather Services, sometimes people tend to use the long-term averages. So for example, if they have a hundred year record at a given location, they'll throw out to the public with the Hundred Year averages are rather than what the World Meteorological organization prefers to use the most recent three decades. So yeah, I'm there that shouldn't be the case, but I Where that that exists and it probably mostly relates to the fact people are using different periods to calculate their historical averages when people hear Twin City temperature is 10°. Where is that the measurement made at is it still at the airport Twin City International Airport, or is it at the Weather Service Office out in Chanhassen, or is it some Third location locally for Twin City? And whenever we hear a reference to historical averages the normal is this the normal is that or we hear the current temperature 10° excetera all of those data come from MSP International Airport. Currently, there is an automated system out there that is continuously feeding those data to the National Weather Service in Chanhassen. So there isn't really a manual measurement going on out there anymore. It's all automated and other reporting stations around the state are they generally automated as well or more manual? Generally what's available to us is from automated temperatures. There's both the Federal Aviation Administration has airport sites instrumented with automated equipment and the national weather service has typically airport sites instrumented with automated equipment. So when we go on the Internet or when we view on the Weather Channel on TV or some other service and we see things like St. Cloud is reporting this or what Dino's reporting this or Morris is reporting this a lot of those days are coming from automated station. We still have the manual observations going on in the climate Network Gary but those most frequently are not available in real time. We can't see what's happening at those points right now. For example, Bill your question for March chili. Thank you. Mr. Celia for the destruction of the rainforest in Brazil affect our climate in North America, and I've also noticed the rainforest have been burned off in Southeast Asia. Reaction from this. Thank you. Well, in terms of the scale it would have to be a large-scale burning but there could be some ramifications frequently though. I think a climatologist tell me that things that happened in the southern hemisphere to change large areas of landscape. Sometimes take a long time and by that I think they mean many years to translate into any kind of a downstream effect or change in the climate in the northern hemisphere. So it would be something that would probably be if if you're talkin about changes in the landscape that have been of recent occurrence their effects May yet to be realized she feel your next go ahead on a previous caller. Two months ago. I read a study where they had looked into these people got quite a sizable number of people together who claims they had these kinds of sensitivities to weather and found that they were not good predictors that in fact as many people predicted high pressure is low pressure in his number of people predicted change when there was none or predicted no change when there was change coming and so I don't know the source of all the studies that mr. Steal you were you were exciting but the I remember one just recently that was just the opposite that it was not a very good predictor just a second question if my mic I could you update us on what's the situation with the ozone and there is a saying the same getting worse than improving that's really been an issue in the last few years, and I'd appreciate it. I am not aware of the recent situation with the ozone. I have read some papers over the last year that suggest detection of a reduced ozone in the stratosphere in different Geographic areas. I guess that's about all I could say about that is that they're no longer a concentrating solely on polar regions, but they're also observing the nature or the temporal pattern in Ozone a different places geographically around the world and there's some variability associated with with this that I pattern of depleted ozone. For example over Northeast. Canada may not be a persistent one. It may be there for a time. And then they may see depletion in other areas of the globe. Fred your question place. Yes Mark, I heard on television on PBS or I heard on NPR that the currents around the equator every first that they are in the Pacific instead of going east to west they're going west to east and if that's true or what we're going through down in the southern part of this country and felt good monsoons. Good point. I don't know if if our current you mean the ocean current itself. There is a natural oscillation in the Pacific in terms of the surface waters. Sometimes the surface waters are flowing West East. Sometimes there flowing East-West occasionally with a strong El Nino this even translates into the surface wind pattern so that instead of having the normal surface easterly winds at the equator you will have actually a change over to Westerly surface winds. That is when's moving from west to east. Whether that translates into a monsoon affect, I really don't know. I haven't seen anybody refer to that. But I do know that there's an oscillating behavior in both the ocean currents and in El Nino situations, the air currents at the equator Lake Superior is a huge body of water. Why doesn't it keep Duluth and other areas along right along the North Shore warmer? Will it does keep the the areas of warmer in the in the winter time? I mean, if you look at the if you look at our climate stations in Minnesota and you look at those located along the North Shore area during the winter months, they're markedly warmer than what they are further Inland. So there is a moderation effect going on in the in the winter. And I think that's most pronounced in December and January if I'm not mistaken in the outside that though. Of course in the summer time. We have this great air conditioning affect and we have tremendous cooling going on along the North Shore as a result of Lake Superior. Has Minnesota is climate always been? What it is now, do we have any idea about what it was? Like, I don't know a couple hundred years ago. Well course. It depends on the time frame even within I guess I'd answer that Gary by saying even it within the instrumental record which in some cases at for Fort Snelling goes back to 1820 we could suggest that the climate has not always been like it is now it's been very erratic. In fact, if you go back and look there were periods in the 19th century when the year the Year variability was of the same order that were experiencing now. There were periods of drought periods of excessive wetness that were of an order that perhaps we haven't measured with the possible exception being the 1930s. I'm not sure that the drought of the 1930s has manifested itself in terms of severity even in the oldest of historical records. I'm not I'm not sure about that but I think the thirties was a extreme4 perhaps centuries much of a market for meteorologists and climatologists these days and other words if if we have some young people listening who are really interested in this subject is are there alot of job opportunities in your area? Well, that's always a challenging question. I think in the commercial sector in the in the private sector, there's probably more opportunities right now. Then there are in the government sector our government Weather Service has just gone through a modernization process and a reshuffling and I think they're that their Manpower or their their personnel is fairly stable. I don't know that they're going to have a lot of openings coming up but in the commercial sector certainly there's a lot of opportunity to work in private Consulting providing customized services to various sectors of the economy and the things of that nature. Is it a fighting kind of the area working? Well, I think it is. I think it's a challenge it's humbling and and and yet and yet there's a lot of detail and a lot of technology that you can work with that's fun to work with and so I thought I I think it's an exciting career and people who have an appreciation for Applied Physics for hydrology Water Resources agriculture. There's a Opportunities to link meteorology up with other subject matter and how do you become one of how to become a young Mark seal a well. There's a variety of ways. You need to First find a college curriculum that offers earth science or specifically meteorology. We have several several of those in the region. St. Cloud State has a program course UW-Madison Iowa State University Etc. And and then you need to lock into those. Programs that are going to give you enough credits to become certified by the American Meteorological Society and then you can come on and do the midday program in the year 2010. Then you can come on the air like this and be humbled in front of all the NPR listeners, but I Mark you guys do a great job. Thanks so much for coming in today and we look forward to hearing from you again Friday morning. You'll be back on Morning Edition. Okay, write thank you Gary. Thank you, sir. Appreciate it. Minnesota public radio's weather expert Mark Seeley climatologist meteorologist at the University of Minnesota. Sasha is laying on his back here in our studio. And Sasha before we give out. Well, let's go out. The phone number right away. The this is the Pledge number now, not the call-in number. You better do that because I was give out the wrong number. 72811 Geary we are wailing away at the school $874 to go and Saddler do that. That's just that's just petty cash for the midday program. I don't know colors on the line, which doesn't bode. Well, I guess but seriously ask Nicole for this hour is $4,000. We think we can do that. Midday has a strong loyal audience with the Deep Pockets. We hope hoping that people who have just enjoyed hearing this program with Mark Seeley will call to to 72811 you can add an 802 that if you live outside the Twin Cities. Again, that number is +22-720-811-8800. 74 dollars left to raise this hour to make our goal and frankly. We came up a little short during the 11:00 hour. So we'd like the zip by this said let's go let's as a matter of fact I let's see if we can raise $2,000 you have to before 1, okay. Again, many of you are and I think anybody's going to call in and pledged $2,000. We're not expecting that. But if you're not yet a member or if it's time to renew or if you're remembering you're all paid up and you might be a little bit extra give us a call. $66 is the level a lot of people join at at the $150 level. We've we're offering is a special premium because Marcy Lee was here is special premium. The weather book by Jack Williams is Mark was saying it's a great great introduction to weather and has all kinds of information that that that you will find interesting and probably would like to share with some other people. That's at the 12 dollar fifty fifty dollar $12.50 per month level 150 dollars then of course, there is the El Nino package. Which is a t-shirt that's so nice tan t-shirts thick cotton has the NPR new logo on the front and the back it says cling tenaciously to those few remaining brain cells. Then there is a long-sleeved blue t-shirt that has a very small discrete MPR logo up in the upper left-hand corner. And then the NPR Grace. What's your toe whole wardrobe never have to worry about getting up in the morning and I having something to wear it when you get the El Nino package, which is 250 200 $40 a year or $20 a month level send out one of each of those are each of each one of those are different levels $84 for the T-shirt 99 for the long sleeve t-shirt 124 the sweatshirt or the whole El Nino package $20 per month one caller on the line at 2 to 72811 outside the Twin Cities one 800-227-2811 and that you know you we keep going on and on here. Giving out phone numbers and talking about this prize of that prize and the other prize and sometimes it all washes over you I know but if you could stop for just a moment. If you could stop for just a moment and here's a deal for you if you're going to become a member. If you're going to become a member and you decided that already or you're going to renew your membership and you made that decision, if you make your call now and get that out of the way, that's all. We're at what we're talking about. He will continue to talk and try to convince people that made up a decision yet. But a lot of you have made your decision for callers on the line right now, we'd love to get you entered in the drawing for the vacation to Orlando trip for people. This is the only day you'll be able to enter that drawing trip for for drawing is I believe it's tomorrow night 7, I'm sorry 7 night 6 go to Disney World Epcot Center all the places around Orlando. All you have to do to enter the drawing is to give us a call. Hopefully you'll make a pledge at the same time and then particularly love to hear from those of you already made up your mind. You've decided yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Phone lines open to to 72811 with that volunteers who are ready just to ask you a couple quick questions your name Visa card number what level you want to sign on it and what you'd like as a thank you gift very easy to do if you had this nagging feeling all yeah. I really should be a member I do. Listen. I've got it as one of the presets on my car now is the time we want to hear from you two to 72811 is the number to call five people on the line right now five people on the line. So here is kind of a last Roundup for those of you who've been listening to us talk about the special premium. So the weather related premiums if you'd like a copy of the weather book by Jack Williams that's available at the $150 level $12.50 per month and we can offer that to you for the next 5 6 minutes 6 minutes that's available. If you'd like to join at that level if you'd like the special El Nino package now, they are the T-shirt. Long sleeve t-shirt and the sweatshirt are all going to be available after 1 as individual items. But if you'd like the full package bargain discount deal at $20 per month level the El Nino special about 5 and 1/2 minutes left to go on that offer, and if you want to show your support for Midday while you got about 5 and 1/2 minutes left to do that as well to to 72811 Twin City area. Number two to 72811 outside the Twin Cities one 800-227-2811 Proud of our mid-day program. It's got a big audience. You're out there listening chances are this is not the only day that you've ever listen to midday. And so now it's such an important time when we need to hear from you 227 28117 people on the line right now. I'm a little puzzled here. We still seem to need to raise $700 yet this hour and 5 minutes to go and seems to me that that midday audience. I'll be there to pull us through course. We have the thousand dollar deficits are really $1,700 left to go. But that isn't that isn't a lot of calls frankly, you know Seventeen 15 to 17 calls at 2 to 72811. That is to say if you're one of those a 15 people has been meaning to call hasn't called yet. If you would get on the horn now in the next 4 and 1/2 minutes we can send out one of those special premiums. We'd love to get you entered in the drawing for the MLT vacation for 4 to Orlando, Florida. Mark Seeley is predicting temperatures next week up into the 70s and 80s. That would be nice be very very nice as a matter of fact, and all you have to do to enter the drawing for the giveaway is simply to call us. We hope you'll make a membership pledge in the meanwhile, and if you would like one of those special midday premiums you have four minutes left to go and then we'll have to put those back in the closet 2 to 7:20 at 11 or 1 800-227-2811. Serie A bunch of people have called in. I just thought I would drop in a few names here Kathleen Malloy called in a brand new member from Minneapolis Audrey Rose called in brand new member from st. Paul. We love hearing from the new members. Sally worrying is a renewal. She's calling in from Little Canada. And that's the other trick is we need people to renew as well. Can't just get buy a brand new members. Every year Dean child has a renewing member from Saint Paul. And Joanna esler is a brand new member from Breckenridge what three and a half minutes tea Ranma 1/2 minutes 7 callers on the line. And how about you again? We're urging you to make that call. It only takes a minute or two of your time. Now, we're not talking about a long tedious process here. Just give us a quick ring get your get signed up. Make sure you get entered in the drawing for Orlando Florida. If you'd like one of those special midday premiums if you'd like a cup Any of the WeatherBug by Jack Williams that Mark Seeley was talking about if you'd like these special El Nino climate control weather package the full wardrobe, you'll have to move quickly now about 2 and 1/2 minutes to go. The important thing is that you give us a call 640 dollars $1,640 left to go to our goal and we just got 2 and 1/2 minutes to do it. You can't do it. You're by yourself. But if 10 of you call we'll get there. We'll get there if the USA Today weather book and it's gotten pretty pretty neat illustrations and it and and explanations of certain weather phenomena and why they occur and why they occur some places and not others that can be worth of $250 level. That's just 1250 a month. And if you're the kind of loyal listener who checks into Minnesota Public Radio once a day and and even if If your regular midday was there or you catch a snippet of Morning Edition are all things considered or Talk of the Nation calling right now to midday and with your support to Minnesota Public Radio 2 to 72811 is the number to call we're running out of time here, but I do want to remind everybody that programming a Minnesota Public Radio is supported by Cooperative power providing electricity to Seventeen member Cooperative serving customers throughout West Central and Southern Minnesota minute and a half left to go Sasha. We have 10 callers on the line 10 people adding their name to the drawing tour Orlando the trip for for a lot of people calling in to show their support for the midday broadcast, but we still have about $1,500 left to go and wake out about this phone call will not take long to to 72811 call in and sit back to rest of the week and feel smug that you're already signed up. You've already Yes, you joined or you've renewed what? Have you but so you made a decision that you value public radio and you've decided to call to to 72811 easy thing to do an important thing to do. We still have an outside shot of making that Gall Gary I can hear thanks for tuning in today Jonas tomorrow. Beverly Hillbillies, I'm going to Benson on the next All Things Considered. Tobacco attorneys cross-examine a witness who says early television marketed cigarettes to children all things considered weekdays at 3 on Minnesota Public Radio k n o w FM 91.1 Listen to Minnesota Public Radio. We have a fair Sky 14° ikena W FM 91.1 Minneapolis. And st. Paul Sunny through the afternoon temperature is about as warm as it's going to get clear and cold tonight with a low around 0 sunny skies are forecast for the Twin Cities in Ohio tomorrow around 20 hits 1


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