On this regional public affairs program, a look at the various aspects on the use and impact of the Mississippi river. Contains various interviews of officials, residents and historians, speaking about the river. Program also includes reading of Mark Twain by Garrison Keillor, and music intro/outro segments.
Read the Text Transcription of the Audio.
Today we're going to look at several aspects of one of the most striking physical characteristics of the Twin Cities a natural resource, which is important to the economy of this state indeed the entire Upper Midwest one which offers tremendous recreational and esthetic opportunities, which are so far largely untapped but a resource which surprisingly is almost ignored in these cities of magnificent lakes and Parks speaking of course of Mississippi River. Although general public awareness of the issues affecting the river maybe law. There are some very complex and even controversial activities among public agencies from federal to the local level and among private developers. All of which will have a major impact on how the river is used in coming years during the shower will explore some of those issues. In life on the Mississippi is reminiscence of his days as a river pilot. Mark Twain wrote I had myself called with the for watch mornings for one cannot see too many summer sun rises on the Mississippi. They are in chanting. Brewster is the eloquence of silence for a deep hush Broods everywhere. Next door is the haunting sense of loneliness isolation remoteness from the worry and bustle of the world. The dawn creeps and stealthily the solid walls of black forest soften the gray and the vast stretches of the River open up and reveal themselves. The water is glass smooth gives off spectral little wreaths of white Mist there is not the faintest breath of wind nor Stir of leaf. The Tranquility is profound and infinitely satisfying. Then a Bird pipes up another follows and soon the pipings develop into a jubilant Riot of music. You see none of the bridge you simply move through an atmosphere of song but seems to sing itself. When the light has become a little stronger you have one of the fairest and softest pictures imaginable. You have the intense green of the Mast and crowded foliage nearby, u-see-it paling shade by shade in front of you upon the next projecting Cape a mile off from the tent has lightened to the tender young Greenspring the cape beyond that one has almost lost color and the farthest 1 miles away Under The Horizon sleeps upon the Water Amir Den vapor and hardly separable from the sky above it and about it. And all this stretch of river is a mirror and you have the shadowy reflections of the leaf H and the curving Shores and the receding capes pictured in it. Well, that's all beautiful soft and Rich and beautiful and when the sun gets well up and distributes a pink flush here and a powder of gold Yonder and a Purple Haze where it will yield the best effect. You grant that you've seen something that is worth remembering if somebody wrote about the River today as Mark Twain did in the 1880s. We might think more about it, but there isn't and many of those who helped make River policies say the public practically ignores the river in the Twin Cities area George griebenow chairs the Upper, Mississippi River Basin commission 250 Minneapolis-Saint Paul residence Some of them I love their longtime 60% of them ever been on the Mississippi or Minnesota River before it's one of our great untapped natural resources, and it's not really used in a to its fullest extent by the residents of this area for Citizens League committee recently did a major study of the Mississippi River in the metropolitan area the chairman of that committee Mary Rowe logging believes people think of the river as a backyard. I think incorrectly that the river is little more than a vast open sewer. The truth is that the river is much cleaner now than it was decades ago. Some people even think it's fit for fishing and swimming in some spots the league report of 1974 points out to that access to the river is limited vast stretches of it, especially in Suburban areas are owned privately public roads along the river are often so far away that people can't see the water. Roll rock and romance that even the stretches which are accessible are poorly marked we were to get to what would the steepness of the gorge walls and in some places highways that go right alongside the riverbank but there are ways to get to it and they should be better marked River Development is not a high priority for many local officials since the river frequently is a boundary between jurisdictions public officials are more interested in developing recreational projects, which are closer to local voters. If you Twin Cities area residents make significant use of the river that is not true. In other parts of the state Dan McGinnis from Wabasha works with a project which is studying the River from the Twin Cities to Iowa people in Southeastern, Minnesota are very cognizant of the river and used it heavily and Recreation on it. And I'm very aware of the fact that it's in their backyard and I think we're very surprised if more people from the Twin City metropolitan area don't come down and use the area as well as many people from the Twin Cities still think of the North country of the lakes in Central and Northern Minnesota has a place to go away directory Aid and relay is Southeastern Minnesota is closer and I don't know. We're just kind of amazing more people don't have we discovered it already George griebenow also has some thoughts on those who flee North every weekend. They abandon the river for the lakes and the river isn't always able to be users portion of the year when the it's not very good for swimming and it's not got the fishing reputation of some of the upper lakes and that's that's why we're still water that we miss our biggest resource right in the heart of Minneapolis. And st. Paul when I tell you that they use the lakes of the Mississippi main stem up here. Most people never think of them as part being part of the Mississippi river boat from Lake Itasca down. The biggest and the most use Lakes are also part of the Mississippi River people think that they are natural lakes. They aren't there artificial man-made Lakes which were created at one time when I was taught that Minneapolis and st. Paul would have a water shortage and they were constructed from you spell water purposes since that time, of course, we've discovered great sources of groundwater and the aquifer system in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul area rugs in Hennepin County is adequate at the present time for the water needs of the population of two million people. I know that washer Leech Lake Big Sandy Winnipeg, I sure. All federal dams. There is one project which is bringing increasing numbers of Twin Cities residence in direct touch with the river a project begun several years ago by a man who can bind his love of Minnesota History and the steamboat era into the Jonathan padelford a modern-day sternwheeler run biodiesel, not steam billable regales his passengers with anecdotes about early River developments as they ride the paddle board from Harriet Island to Fort Snelling on a river. If you look back to your right you'll notice ever mean. How many years at the head of that ravine? What's a cape that came at a stream of water coming out of it? Well in the 1830s? There was an ugly. bearded scarred one-eyed character with the one I had it would sort of look like a pig's eye or pigs. I made his living selling liquor to the soldiers at Fort Snelling about 4 miles Upstream. He was a bootlegger. Nobody 1838 Tacoma. Unfortunately decided that they would no longer allowed squatters on a property around the port and they requested that 150 families Move May refuse to the commandant was forced to send his soldiers in and ate they made the people move out onto the side and then they burnt her home, but they had no place to go Downstream. Beer to the area of old pigs eyes cave and here they formed a little Community called Pig's Eye. What about three years later? They 1841 a young Catholic priest came by by the name of Father Lucien galtier and he established a little log Chapel Downstream about a mile in the people from the community of pigs. I would go down to his church on Sunday. But it wasn't long before they decided perhaps it would be proper if they would change the name of their little Community from Pig's Eye to the name that log chapel. And of course it was a chapel of Saint Paul in back there by the Orange Post is for Saint Paul began. Where'd you learn? All this about? The river goes back to my days as a creator for the Minnesota Twins tonight and where I developed an interest in Minnesota History for your husband. Since I began is operation. I have developed quite a library on the Mississippi River in a very extensive library on Minnesota History. How long have you had this passenger boat operation on the river here? I don't see padelford in 1969. They only put it in Souris idly was May 16th that we have the other people ride this year. I had over a hundred thousand people. It's been going up each year. the focus room down the river dark clouds Well, it's a long long way from home. to the guy Well, I make my own emoji. bubble maker. On a Saturday night Well, I had me a girl way down in Vicksburg. Hilti made of where the Riverboat gambling well, then you sell food and a little mustache on a steamboat today. on a Saturday night now when I die, I've got one favor. Don't lay me down in the cold cold ground. Just take me out. Do the middle of the river on a raft of honesty? bubble maker. On a Saturday night Have a great day day is t molding on this trailer was 2018 42 1880. You might be interested to know that during that. Of time. The average life of a steamboat was only three year. Most important reason for the sudden demise of a steamboat was the fact that the boilers were frequently blowing. Now steamboating was very very competitive. In a captain's were always racing one on one another to the next port. They know the first one there would probably get to Preferred cargos wasn't unusual for the captain to look out of the corner of his eye and see another boat coming up and grab hold of speaking to power down to the boys mansion on fire up. We got to race coming on. After a while if you didn't get enough steam, you might call a cab and go out and tell him so now you go down to the ship tours and get a keg of larten go down there and your room until the boys put it on the Fire. Many times our chief engineer or down below what becomes very aggravated at the old wood up there in the pilothouse calling for More and More Steam. Finally they take a heavy object such as a keg of nails put it on the steam safety belt. Of course this little trip 190 erase. But many of time I blew the boat the captain and the crew to Kingdom Come. In the flush times of steamboating a race between two notoriously Fleet Steamers was an event of vast importance the date was set for it several weeks in advance and from that time forward the whole Mississippi Valley was in a state of consuming excitement. Politics in the weather with dropped and people talked on the of the coming race. As the time approached the two Steamers stripped and got ready every encumbrance that added weight or exposed to resisting surface to wind or water was removed. If the boat could possibly do without it. The spars and sometimes even there supporting Derek's were sent ashore and no means left to set the boat afloat in case you got a ground. When the eclipse on the a l Shotwell ran their great race many years ago. It was said that pains were taken to scrape the gilding off the fanciful device which hung between the eclipse is chimneys and that for that one trip the captain left off his kid gloves and had his head shaved, but I always doubted these things. If the boat was known to make her best speed when drawing five and a half feet of water forward and 5 feet aft she carefully loaded to that exact figure and she wouldn't answer a dose of homeopathic pills on her manifest after that. Hardly, any passengers were taken because they not only add weight, but they never will trim the boat. They always run to the side when there's anything to see where as a conscientious and experienced Steamboat man would stick to the center of the boat and part is hair in the Middle with a spirit level. No way Freight Sno-Way passengers were allowed for the races with stop only at the largest towns. And then it would be only touch-and-go Cole flats and would Flats were contracted for beforehand and these were kept ready to Hitch onto the flying steamers at a moment's warning double Cruz work area. So that all work could be quickly done. The Chosen date being calm and all things and Readiness the two great Steamers back into the stream and lie their jahking moment. Apparently watching each other's slightest Movement Like sentient creatures Flags drooping the pants team shrieking through safety valve the black smoke rolling and tumbling from the chimneys and darkening all the air. People people everywhere the shores the housetops the steamboats the ships are packed with them and you know that the borders of the broad Mississippi are going to be friends with Humanity thence northward 1200 miles to welcome these races. Of course it was because of the river that this area was settled in the first place. The river was responsible for the Twin Cities becoming a major Business Center for the entire Upper Midwest throughout the late eighteen-hundreds. The river was a major highway for both passengers and Freight competition from the railroads by the turn of the century cut River traffic drastically, but when Congress authorize construction of a 9-foot channel and a series of locks and dams on the river in the 1930s barge Transportation increased and now millions of tons of Cargoes are carried on the river every year Industrial Development on the Riverbanks began soon after the Twin Cities was first settled lumbering and flour Milling work, did Saint Anthony Falls steamboating and related Industries developed is Saint Paul became a major part later the riverfront became an attractive sight for railroads since since it was easier to lay tracks along the flat land next to the river then it was further Inland so Industries, which relied on rail transportation to got off the phone with the river. Still other Industries later found the river a convenient Dumping Ground for wastes. Jack Robertson an official at play Minnesota Department of planning observes that through the years the Mississippi River has retained its unique characteristics. This stretch of the river quarter is is unique geologically it took contains a part of the glacial River Warren of the gorge below Fort Snelling where it intersects. The Minnesota has a lot of remnants of of that geology plus the newer geology of Saint Anthony Falls anime. Haha Falls has many historical artifacts from the earliest inhabitants of the continent It has a car Scenic Beauty. On the other hand, it is very very valuable because it is in such close proximity to the 2 million people who live in the metropolitan. Are you have access to both the recreational a store corn scientific interest of the gorge and finally because it is in the metropolitan area. It is under constant pressure to be used in a number of ways some of which are compatible and some of which may be competing or destructive for instance. It's very necessary to use the river for hauling a freight that's part of the economic Lifeline of the Syrian of the State movie Upper Midwest. It is also a source of supply for water for a majority of a residents of the area. It's also receiving water to assimilate the treated sewage and that's very Important that has to be balanced and so you have the the necessary trade-offs required between the transportation and recreation use of the river itself. And it's very unique to find all those things and 50 60 70 mile stretch of the river as well as opportunities on the riverfront the use of Riverfront land will probably change in the future with pressure to develop or redevelop significant portions increased grain shipments from the Midwest and our need for low sulfur coal. For example would likely lead to increased barge traffic Mary rollwagen of the Citizens League navigation and its effects on the river. It certainly seems that transporting bulk Commodities by barge is cheaper in terms of money and in terms of energy Then to do so by train. Or highway or whatever. So that the number of barges on the river certainly isn't going to decrease and they will increase at the same time. The number of small boats on the river is increasing to so far. I don't think there's been enough of each to provide for a super traffic jams, but that may well come O. Tario Scoop from the river bottom is called spoils 300000 cubic yards of this material is granted each year north of Hastings. The Dredge spoils are deposited along river front land largely. This causes environmental problems in a few spots. It tends to narrow the river Channel at Poinsett canflix aesthetic lie with the rugged beauty of the riverfront and if can close off Backwater destroying fish and wildlife, however, the spoils have also created sandbars in the river which are used by Boulders for picnic spots in beaches. The Citizens League also predicts that additional Riverfront land will be needed for commercial and Industrial Development. The riverfront will become increasingly attractive as well for housing developments and that concerns committee chairman very well walking. There was a possibility for sometime quite a real possibility that a large apartment building of some 27 stories would be constructed in the floodplain that is right down next to the river across from Fort Snelling across the Mississippi from Fort Snelling. That's a very wild area almost all of it owned by some governmental unit or other in an apartment building. That was Rising right out of the river valley and up above Lifeline. I think would have been a very inappropriate thing in that spot as it happens. The building I gather is not going to be built for a while. It was simply a matter of financing that couldn't be gotten and now I think the city of Saint Paul has some plans to acquire that land. Where do you make an apartment building like the one you described would be appropriate or if know where what kind of Housing Development right along? The river would be acceptable speaking for the committee in that respect. Some of his couldn't resolve that one. Finally. They were appropriate as long as they were set back far enough. So as not to obstruct other people's View and that they weren't Bunch together one after another Up and Down the River. Is San Francisco has a a requirement? That sets of sight lines from the shore of the bay and the further back from the bay. You get the higher you can build the closer to the Bay fish the lower. Your building has to be I think that's a very good idea another project which has caused controversy is northern states power company's plan for a coal terminal at Pig's Eye Lake. The original plan was rejected by the Saint Paul city council. The company is now preparing a new plan which should be ready in a couple of weeks rollwagen and other members of the Citizens League River committee readily agree that some of the Bellman of the riverfront in the Twin Cities area is inevitable even desirable so long as one use does not preclude others, the league concludes that within limits Transportation housing and Recreation are legitimate River activities one developer who is making appropriate use of the river. Apparently his Minneapolis. Businessman Louis zelle. We've been involved our own some land along Main Street in the area where the Proctor restaurant is and Twilight's that block in the next one. We're just finishing up the final plans and contracts for the development of the first building which we call Salisbury a there's used to be part of the Old Salisbury mattress operation, which is a very nice building Bell about 1910. Very good. And then the other buildings across the way are some of the oldest in the city. I mean older substantial was one of the first post office fire station and one was what we call the up-and-down tell about 1850. I with my blade, which is very early for a brick type building. what will be in those buildings after you have a restaurant Lake and Ghirardelli Square in San Francisco and the kind of thing that is seems to be Coming back in this country, which is usually around refurbished old buildings. We would go on and have some some residential Arium these be townhouse type things or single-family 14-foot ceiling. When do you think all this will be done? I'm not I will just go right on from there. Chili's enthusiasm extends to the city's plans to make the river more accessible to the public in the state Anthony Falls area of a Marlin and this is one of the few places that In order to see The Falls really? Well, you have to crawl over a fence. Witches got spikes on top and climb down and walk out on a kind of appear. It's really so Sensational thing at this is the kind of thing that ought to be public in the next few years will be tracking that they really are doing and the designs are just first class. I would think that though. If these things go a lot in the next few years will probably have projects are possible that it's obvious. Some coordinated planning is necessary. The Citizens League recommends that development on the riverfront should be based on standards to protect the River Bluffs to ensure the roadways along the river in hats it that existing parks are protected that the density of development is controlled and the league concludes that the existing government process is not adequate to manage the riverfront. So the league recommended two years ago that the river be designated a critical area by Governor Anderson critical areas. Act was passed by the legislature in 1973. It gives the governor authority to declare the designation on recommendation from a local or Regional Planning Group or the Environmental Quality Council to eat que Si Robertson from the state planning agency. But the governor's action does his designation order set up a partnership essentially between the eqc and any local government or state agency that has jurisdiction in the designated critical area under that partnership under the provisions of the ACT those agencies amend plans and regulations where they have them or prepare new plans and regulations. If not exists to be consistent with the guidelines that are contained in the governor's designation order. They have a half a year to make those amendments for those preparations and bring them to the QC for approval. Once those plans and regulations are approved by eqc. The local governments and state agencies then implement the plans and regulations under the authority that they normally have to implement plans and regulations, but they then they are consistent then with each other with that the purpose is to try to eliminate conflicts or overlaps between jurisdictions and make sure that those the agency's programs management programs are consistent with the state interest the governor. his designation orders only temporary until finally confirmed by the legislature and this confirmation by the legislature by legislative action must be made within three years after the designation order. Otherwise the designation order lapses Colossus at this confirmation can also be made by a regional development commission. Why are there so many steps in this process why so many agencies involved? Why is it go back to the legislature for approval or the Planning Commission? Probably one reason is that the spirit of the ACT is very clearly intended to set up a partnership. It does not Envision a dictatorial or are top-down planning process. If you will from the state agencies to local government and private landowners. It seems perhaps and unnecessary detail, but very important to make sure that it's spelled out clearly that agencies have such as I have limited time to react to can't table things install things by not acting on them. And if you read the statue in the rule to find that sort of a a threat of continuity there are of course and the critical area from Anoka to Hastings. It seems to me like there is a distinct potential for conflict between those government agencies rivalry among them disagreement among them. Certainly. There is a certain amount of the Rivalry disagreement contention between local governments between themselves and staging On the other hand, sometimes it is very useful for them. When dealing with private development many times a private developer will simply say to local unit of government. Well, if you don't adjust your zoning to fit my proposed development, I will go upstream or Downstream to another community and they'll let me do it and you will be the losers because you won't have this development in your community. So to a certain extent and all that prevents that because it gives everybody uniform set of rules to operate under and it prevents communities in the state agencies from being played off against each other critical area designation includes that part of the River from Anoka to Hastings play Mississippi. North of Anoka how to say cloud is also protected by another device the Wild and Scenic Rivers act Mike presidents Rivers coordinator at the Department of Natural Resources explain that program as we roll. Jonathan padelford generally, the critical areas program is designed to provide in arm protection until long-range plans can be repaired on critical areas that those being knows that need immediate attention and I have more than just local a significance the Wild and Scenic Rivers program by the very name. By its very name is meant by was intended to really be applied to rivers that are and I and I and essentially natural condition in the case of the wild and Scenic Rivers designation. St. Cloud Anoka there really aren't any significant restrictions on recreational use the night there right now. I can use a pretty much as they have in the past and in the metro area that's pretty much the case as well under the credit cards program. What kind of development are you trying to restrict along the northern section? We're trying to control or hold the line on urban sprawl for 1 second lady to prohibit at least in the undeveloped a rural areas in a large commercial expansion or industrial expansion immediately along the river because of all the things that river is used for there is a good deal of argument among the different interests and my presence. Oh, I think there's a diversity of Opinion says to what should be done with the river and also who should be doing it. We are particular proposal scene called to Anoka was quite a controversial one. We had in essence a pharmacist some standpoint almost at Classic confrontation of interest on the river between farmers on the upper and who are being squeezed out by urban sprawl and the development interest on the lower end. Particularly Elk River to Anoka that saw an opportunity to make a lot of money by land speculation. The developers have already said that they are intending to cast certain of their Provisions zoning controls in court my presence of the Department of Natural Resources. Some people like Jack Lambert president of the Twin City barge and towing company C the attempts to limit development through the critical areas act as a restriction on Commerce, which may have serious impact not only on businesses what use the river but on the economy of the entire Upper Midwest great deal of acreage thousands of acres is open space Commerce. We need industry. Open space. It doesn't it doesn't provide any job the regulations already on the books prior to the critical areas coming almost impossible for any Industrial Development even making it difficult for Thomas to continue to flow. He's already on the books as critical area track and it just one more layer of bureaucratic red-tape River Valley and indeed the critical area designation does play some very specific limits on various activities do barred slips are not allowed in urban open space areas new. Foods must intrude as little as possible into the scene radio. They must provide views for motorists new buildings have to be set back a specific distance from the river or from the Bluffs. They generally cannot exceed 35 feet in height and there are additional regulations covering waste treatment facilities commercial and Industrial Development of Agriculture and Recreation. There is at least one other major policy making body planning body which affects the river that is the Upper Mississippi River Basin commission created by the president the commission includes the director of 10 federal agencies and representatives from Six States, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri the chairman of the Upper Mississippi River Basin commission is George Green basically the River Basin commission develops plans programs and policies and not on the impact on navigation button power plant siding Transportation surveys Bridge construction and all of the things that have anything to do with the Mississippi River was getting quite obvious if any state and Barks on a project or program by itself. It's in danger of litigation. It's in danger of being a sword's point with a bordering state or the Federal Energy program with the rules and regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency or was some other unknown factor. So the best thing to do is to get the agency's together right at the beginning of any program or any change in policy and ask them from input right at the beginning is the commission at all involved in the critical area designation for the governor. Has that completely at his prerogative. What happens is that the work of the commission makes it easier for the governor to make a decision that's in the total public interest. By the time the governor has that on his desk commission is massage. It processed it reviewed it. All of the agencies of commented on it. The governor has a much easier choice or at least he knows what the alternatives are which way to go personally. I favor the critical area designation for the metropolitan area. That's before Governor Anderson at the present time. One of the commission's most visible projects is a major study of the River from the Twin Cities to Guttenberg Iowa. The study is called great. That's an acronym for Great River environmental action team. Its members include representatives from any state federal and local River interest Wabasha President Dan McGinnis public participation coordinator for great talk about the study and about the possibility of critical area designation for sections of the River South from Hastings. I don't know. how to promote any sort of critical areas designation for the balance of the river and I don't think I are in our case our regional development commission has considered it and I know of no local unit of government is considered a You think it's necessary there or not? It might depend heavily on how well the Great River study which is a kind of a joint state-federal study of Mississippi River from the Twin Cities on down to Guttenberg, Iowa how well that study pans out. That's that he has an ultimate goal of trying to develop a river management plan that takes in all the various interest and I think that study works out the critical areas designation wouldn't be necessary. When is that study scheduled for completion? We're looking at a 1978 or 1979 completion date on that study. We're just in a very beginning phases of a knob to finding the problems. One of the problems are conflicts on the river that really got the ball rolling as far as creating the great study. When a great team was the conflict of dredging by the u.s. Army Corps of Engineers to maintain a navigation Channel and the fact that some hundred ninety-four thousand acres of land from Wabasha down to Rock Island is as a National Wildlife Refuge and the dredging activity in many cases was destroying or helping to destroy some valuable wildlife habitat. If the Drudge the material itself is placed properly creates a minimum negative impact, but when it's dumped into some of the shallow Marsh areas, it's stealing away some of the Prime waterfall reading and nesting And some very good fish habitat and on the course of dealing with that one major problem of the dredge spoils. You're likely to come up with some other problems. What is the rivers capacity as far as how much by traffic can it handle when you add to that recreational traffic on the river and of course one of the things that it's going to be at the dealt with and probably will have to be dealt with more at the local level anyplace else is development along the river sides. Anyone is taking a drive down the what we call the South Shore the Mississippi River Valley will see a lot of beautiful as yet natural lines along the river. That's so far. I've been able to miss any sort of major development. I think one of the things that I think that is Yet to Come As a real pressure for development of those Bluff areas for second homes for recreational uses and one of the major conflicts that I see that we're going to have to be facing in the future or some way to to save that natural beauty, which is what is attracting so many people in the first place. I still need governmental jurisdictions that deal with the river some federal jurisdiction for the Corps of Engineers. There is certainly the state and local governments Regional planning. Agencies in South Forest isn't there almost done. You're quite right. That's a real problem for private developers. It becomes a regular nightmare to attempt to receive all the necessary approvals that must be received to do a development down the river and a private developer might spend literally years trying to get approval to Simply dredge out a section of the river. That's one of the real problems that we face is trying to Wade through the red tape is that one of the things that they rate T-Mobile address. I don't know if coming to a end up coming together with a management plan that takes into consideration all his interest will miss minimize the red tape it off, but I hope so jurisdictions over the river there does seem to be some general agreement on the need for careful planning to permit maximum use of the river and minimize conflicting demands on the resource. The chairman of the Citizens League River study or a roll wagon had a final suggestion which might make it easier for area residents to follow River Development. He proposed a single place where River plans are collected. The critical area is in a sense of defense mechanism it prevents things, but it doesn't necessarily start anything and I think they're all kinds of things that can be done. Along the edge of the river on both sides that will encourage people to go and use the river and there isn't any one place where ideas for that can be looked into and developed a little bit. We're maybe even though some people could start going out and hustling some funds for doing all kinds of things that might be necessary just places where you can park your car and get out and walk signs for hiking trails end biking trails. Can you access point and it would be nice if there were one spot within the metropolitan area one body where these things couldn't begin to jail and start to be done should also like to see a Citizens committee active on the river's behalf much as neighborhood associations are in various parts of the Twin Cities. During this broadcast. We've tried to outline. Some of the pressure is on the river pressures, which you have left by themselves might destroy a great public resource before most people even know it exists Citizens League hazards that the river be declared a critical area by the governor. All development plans will have to be approved by the Environmental Quality console and the entire critical area designation with a company and plans will have to be approved by the state legislature or by the Metropolitan Council within three years during this broadcast. We've heard the selections from life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain read by Garrison Keillor and music by Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs technical director has been Lynn Cruz, this is Bob Potter speaking. Now, this is a story about a young man from Natchez Mississippi whose father took a steam boat called a Delta Queen to New Orleans and got killed in a poker game the young man thought about it for a while and then decided on Revenge and he said I'm going to ride that Steamboat. Busty boo took my daddy to New Orleans. He got killed in a poker game downtown. Steamboat took my daddy. soundproofing cage in Gambler shutting down daddy route that Steamboat didn't take me long and I've been sitting here thinking all day long. And I'll take mine. Took my daddy to New Orleans. Daddy was pretty good with a deck of cards. He said that he'd get rich in New Orleans. All the games are good and the cages Coleman High. But you gain when no money. And I'll take mine. BeanBoozled took my daddy. I know he wanted that money for us kids. Daddy Road HD movie never took mom alone, and she's been sitting here crying all day long. And imma take my gun. I'll get the Moon.