Listen: Agnes Lamont - Oglala Sioux on Pine Ridge Reservation

Agnes Lamont, mother of Buddy Lamont, who was killed at Wounded Knee in 1973, is interviewed by Kevin McKiernan. Lamont discusses Oglala Sioux on Pine Ridge Reservation.

Read the Text Transcription of the Audio.

Agnes Lamont is 67 years old. She's a widow. She's in Ogallala Sioux Indian. Her first language is Lakota. She lives in the tribal headquarters Village of Pine Ridge on the reservation of the same name in Southwestern South Dakota her only son Lawrence buddy Lamont was killed last year and Wounded Knee 17 miles from home. This is Lamont is a cook in the Pine Ridge boarding school Under the reservation administration of tribal chairman Richard Wilson. She is work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs for 30 years. She recognizes that one of the primary issues of the 1973 Z71 day confrontation at Wounded Knee focused on hostility for the Bia with cooking provides her only income. This is Lamont acquaintance with the Sioux Treaty of 1868 that treaty so much an issue in the Wounded. Knee court case is now in progress goes back a long way as a child her grandparents filled her with Indian accounts of how that treaty was broken by Army soldier.Who got a waiver Prospectors into the sacred Black Hills searching for gold in the 1870s this only a few years after the treaty signed by the a Teton Sioux Nations at Fort Laramie, Wyoming and ratified by the United States Congress one which guaranteed the Sioux one disturb use of all lands west of the Missouri River in present-day South Dakota as well as territory in Nebraska North Dakota, Montana and Wyoming. This is Lamont Grandparents were among thousands of Indians who rode with the Oglala Sioux Chief Crazy Horse at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. She recalls as a young girl how proud her grandparents were responding to the Black Hills violation sharing in the 1876 defeat of General George Armstrong Custer and the United States 7th Cavalry, but 14 years later other relatives word Affair less. Well at another Historic Site Wounded Knee they are in the winter of 1890 a few days after Christmas or great aunt and uncle were monkey.100 Sioux Indians massacred by a reorganize unit of Custer's famous 7th This is Lamont mother 12 years old in 1890 was one of the few survivors 83 years later her grandson. Agnes's somebody would be less fortunate on April 27th, 1973 exactly two months after the now-famous occupation. Began 31 year old buddy Lamont was shot through the heart with a single bullet while running for cover to a fox hole in wood me. This is Lamont was interviewed in st. Paul this August 16th the day the defense arrested in the trial of Dennis Banks and Russell means she first described the night of February 27th 1973 at the Calico Meeting Hall 4 miles north of Pine Ridge the American Indian movement her son others had arrived from Rapid City 125 miles away. The impeachment of the tribal chairman had failed a few days earlier the Oglala Sioux civil rights organization have been meeting to discuss growing problems on the reservation. There was a dancing Powell. Land which later would be changed to porcupine a town on the other side of Wounded Knee from Pine Ridge and Calico when she arrived in Calico, the meeting was in progress at people they demand that they're the same people to stay for help to the finishing and it's not finished yet or so. I see that's what they asked him to do. If anybody wants it that way once aims to stay and support them and they all raise their hands. And that's that's why the stadion towards the last I suppose I went in into the Civil Rights meeting but it's about time to be dancing when we get there and I left my friend over there. So that's why I went back purposely to pick her up to and when I got there there was no dance. All I saw was a TV man standing in their had the flood light shining and people are off they couldn't sit on because it's a small place and they're all standing up and if you're short, you can't see nothing. So that's what happened to me. I couldn't see what's going on and they were talking so well. They were going someplace and I was wishing you another lady in and they all start out. And my daughter is going home and take care of the kids till we get home. She said we'll be back. Okay, I said and I waited till they all left. And I followed them and it's it's oh so pretty the way they were going all the no tail lights or just went through phases one streak of red light on the road and I followed them all the way into town. This is a new Pine Ridge Pine Ridge and they were turning East and so I went around the other way and my daughter there was going to the dance. So hurry up and I went over there and told her there's no dance and she said why they all left all going east. I said really sausages. There's nobody just a few old ladies were there with the show, so I came on home then I went around through the jail. You know is that lane? And there's a car ahead of me and stop. So I stopped to the stop sign and there was a car pulling by the space station station wagon, and when this car started to head but I could see two women coming towards towards me. So I roll the window down and she said what's going on. She said all this car is going east and I looked at her age was Dick Wilson's wife and another girl. I don't know if it's her daughter who I said during the final. I'm going north. I said I was going to tell my other daughter there's no dance. So then I turned in and I went North did you know what that time? We were going to want to me. They didn't say. All I said we're leaving and will be back. So I went on over there not told my daughter. She's laying their success. If you're going to Calico you left out. Why is it look out there now so you could see them going good half a mile stretch a cardiologist bumper-to-bumper. Oh my gosh. I wonder why my daughter Lou she said that why don't you go on before the start run over me run me up in a ditch. So I'll wait so I did wait till I left so I went home and I told him and I went back. And I got home and working around and getting ready for bed. And here one call me. Did you know what happened and Wanda need sausage? What? He said that the reason the same people and down in there. And all of them parked somewhere on the church and all this Marshalls, I suppose in the cops or whoever they are. They're all down there baby having roadblocks. Oh my gosh what happened? So, I don't know. That's all it said it with the news, but that's the starting of the Wounded Knee then someone daughter said take care of this kid. So we get back and it was 71 days. Well, I kept them for a week and when the road block open I took them down there the kids down there. So I took him down and of course I was nothing, you know, they're not shooting or anything. So it's for the two days and early March for 2 days. So I took a food to them groceries and close to them and left the kids with her dad. Mom. They're all right, I can see and I visit my son. And there was a mob of people and I don't think anybody can say did you see this person that person in there there so many that you can't tell who's who and I had to park way towards the back. And as I was sitting there and then a man in a crowd, I didn't know anybody that's too many and I turn around when I start back to the car. There was two boys were walking. You know, what coming down the hill in one when I came towards the church and the other ones coming slow. So I looked and I noticed the way he walked and he had a blanket over his shoulder. It was him. He was really happy and he likes to eat. So he said you're bringing a child. So I said yes. and I have I don't know how many chickens I had cried and other things that he said down start eating then he was telling me he said that put a roadblock on there in this bi cops. I think they're getting top he said but we we have we have our bunkers. and he went on talking and so well, I'll be back tomorrow and I left the next day. I cook some more and I took it down there and I said it since the roadblock is open. Why don't you come home? Because I need you. and he said the I don't know. He said 12:00 just one night. That's a come home and clean up and put clean clothes on and bring some groceries back with you. He said no, I don't think I'll go back. He said look at these people here just little children that even babies are here. He said and my two nieces are here and the girls the young girls. My sister is here and my little nephews and nieces are here. And why should I go home? He said it don't look nice if I leave them go home. He said anything happens. I'll never forget. I regret that so I don't think I'll go home. Since Vicki Wilson off my job. Of course that isn't much but still he accuse me of being a name and that's what I'm here for being came in and he said we want our treaty rights treaty rights and civil rights. And that's what these people are here. And that's what I'm here for we went. All right. Come take a Wilson and if he thinks he's going to Get get the get us out of here. I don't know but he said he's not getting me out of here alive because I'm here for that purpose. That my people will get the rights the treaty rights to civil rights. So I said well. You should go back and come back in again as well. Just go home and bring me some mortar and some clean clothes. He says n And I'm not coming out till we win this game. And that's with what the very first time. I heard that in a courtroom. It seems like you just hit me because that's the word he used. I won't be back until we win this game. He said we are here to demand for our rights. And when we win this you people are going to be happy. Set flow. I guess I have to go home then hits the why he said go home. He said but pray for us. That will win our game here. And take you off his not going to get me out of here alive. And when I think about that, it just it just makes me feel so bad then it seemed like he knew, he knew something was going to happen to him. and I went back and I came back the next day rose with cold. The Marshalls won't let me in. And I searched the car. I said go through everything. And if I if and if I can't take this in. Take what you want. And it said no we can't let you in. You have to go back to Pine Ridge and see some Marshall and get permission. Come back my goodness if I have to do that remember that I'm working and I can't be spending time to be going to here and there to ask. Ask permission to come in here after what happened in Custer South Dakota after your son went there with the American Indian movement. It was clear to you that he was organizing with them that he was going with them that he was aligning himself with the American Indian movement. Did it surprise you when he went into Wounded Knee with the others know he didn't surprise me because he said well, I just want to join him because I can't get no job and Jackie Wilson accusing me of being a name and I'm not a name but that's what he claimed. So I just want to join him. What did you hear about him? Well, it said he was in a bunker. with two other boys the study that was going to Gaston. Anna late, I work till 10 at night and I went home and I saw my little grandchildren all sitting there just like a little bird sitting on a fence quiet. So I said or did you come from us that come in a joking way and Zendaya from Wounded Knee who brought you your mom or dad know somebody brought us? what to say well they told us to get out of this hole. Some man was going to bring us what happened down there. Oh Grandma, you know he said those a man up there that had the they were shooting at us all night with BB guns. He said you got to hear them all night and Marshalls and it was real, you know, they're shooting at them, but they still think it's BB gun safe cuz they had BB guns in your grandchildren right now with us. He must be about 7, there was one I think she was It almost 3 and then another one five another one. That's he there's it's twins. And that's two little girls two little girls in the oldest points oldest. And the baby six of them. They're all smaller than I felt. Sorry. I thought they'd be crying for their mother, but they didn't. They were just good kids and sometimes I just refuse really feel bad not heard. They're going to guess them that next morning. That's why they had to bring them up. They gas them. Alright, and the saw it coming, but somehow the wind change and you went back towards the Marshalls. And that's the day my son got killed. How did you hear that? Your son has been killed. Well, I work that day and people were telling each other they went to gas them but they didn't work and there was going to go shoot him. So I was pretty well. Aware of it, but I kept working till in the afternoon. There's a heavy fine come over the radio to see him fine and I work till 5. Then I go back for supper and come back again till 10 at night and must have been about 3. little after 3 and I just had a feeling that something happened or something's going to happen in Monday. One of my oldest daughter ran in and she had a funny look and she said mom. She said something happened on a wounded knee one of them got hurt. oh my I hope it isn't bad bad that you know. And she ran out so I got off and I went and I went to the hospital. I didn't at the hospital that brought him in at the hospital. I hurry up and I drove over there. I didn't see anybody nobody over there. So I came back down to her house and she was gone. So I drove right into a next neighbor and I went in and asked her. Where did she go? And she said no, I don't know. Well I said something happened in one that needs one of the kids. I said, I just wonder what it is and just in another car drove up with my grandson grandma. Come on up. He said to the hospital. He said Uncle got killed. Boy that just hit me. So I drove up there and I went in and we went out of town and down the basement. That's where they had him in the Marshall standing right at the door. So we went in and I saw him. Oh it just a terrible wound. It was no little no little hole, you know, like Pedro had you know something all over it's a great big 100. plan to start crying Anna Marshall standing there So we came out and ask Adele when they're waiting for autopsy. So I said when is he coming in? I don't know but we stayed there all night and the chartist the tried to run us out of there in the hospital to go on home. I'm not going home. As long as my son telling you I'm going to be here. So we all stayed till morning. The next day was Saturday all day till about 4. I couldn't take it so they put me under so I slept all day at schools and just as I woke up sitting there why one of the girls came up with the mom come on that man is here now. So I went down the basement and this stuff Brown. He has a contract with the hospital. Autopsy autopsy, so we went down in and he was in already. and my daughter she one of them went in with me and she said the What kind of a bullet did they use? It couldn't be a a small gun the way it looks. And I want to know we want to know. And he said well in that case I have to change my story. That's the answer you gave us Garner. Yes from Scottsbluff. His last name is brown. I know but he has a contract with the hospital. So it's all on the government so he wouldn't tell us that's what he said the coroner. Yeah. He said I have to change my story. So if I have to tell you So and then he went up fast, but we followed him. He followed him on upstairs. No, we want the death certificate Howard have what how he died? And what kind of bullet like I said, I don't want to have to change my story if I do but you will get this death certificate certificate in a few days. And do we have to wait that long? He said yes, but we did he died on Friday Saturday Sunday Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday Saturday Sunday. We had funeral. 10 days Took that long. Probably he's free to tell that they use high-powered rifle on him. So that's what I just couldn't take it and we try to get him to another. Pathologist and we calling Denver there was one but he wasn't this claim. He wasn't real good. But there's another one that was there. So we want to take the body to Rapid City. But this other Undertaker I couldn't stand for him to be laying there like that. So we call her. the funeral home in Rushville So he took him back over there. And then he wouldn't let him out unless we had the money but we did have the money it's over 1800 page right there. We all pitched in the girls did. and we got him out and well before this happened it seem like he knew something was going to happen to him my granddaughter sit. He said if anything happens to me one day he came back down in that eating before that heavy firing. He said that I heard they going to come in or not. If anything happens to me. He said don't take me back to Pine Ridge and don't let Dickie Wilson come around me. but he said he said bury me in Wounded Knee right here. He said Then he later on he laughed and he said, you know I said don't want to be buried and wondering if anything ever happens to me after I thought it over. I don't want to give a hard time to my people. So just bear mean bunker and he laughs. I want to be there in the morning Booker. That way people will know what How I died. And buried in in the in my Booker. And I guess he must have felt it or something. So that was his wish so we had to I had to fight for him to be there in Wounded Knee. Why was it so hard to have him buried there at the cemetery? They wouldn't do it the government. So mr. Fritz cell and Rubidoux and health stern was there and hellstern we couldn't budge him. I just hate him. I just hate his guts. He said only 35 can go in for the funeral. so I said Mr. Hellstern I have 34 grandchildren and what the rest going to do? Thermistor for sale in master room to talk and talk and talk to well he said to his immediate family. Can go and buy we just kept on till it's over 200 went in and when we went on that Bigfoot Trail, they had a roadblock to the Marshalls. And every one of them that was going in the car had to park the car. You know, how far from that Junction is from Wounded Knee. Well, they all have to park their cars and they got school buses and allow them up and they took them down into a Nittany for the funeral the Search Everything. We had some food taken in for the same people. That's our Indian custom to feed the people and you know, give them things that belong to the person or the parents are you know, so that's what we done to search everything that went in so we went in had service and we had the funeral. And fed the people and I gave this thing's I give him dismisses. Hatzalah had I give her a brand-new Pendleton blanket. It'll still in the plastic bag. You know, I gave her that and I gave Gladys Bissonnet a Pendleton shawl with one when colored fringes. And I give thanks to the other people have told people that were in one Denis. I give them some of them wear my own new dresses that I give it to them and hear when they was going on underneath this people put them things in their trunks. and probably be a copson Marshalls. Going to try the trunks open and they took him out for evidence saying that the stolen from the Wounded Knee store. and after they done that why it's after the Come out of jail. And so far. It's why they told me what they done to them. So I went to Eastman one day and I told him out of the Bureau of Indian Affairs police Trading Post. I took them down in there and the Federal Marshals saw them they went through them. And why did you take them away from them? Where are they? So he went in across the hall and that's where they keep their all their guns and ammunition what not and he brought a purple blanket. And here he said here's one blanket. So I took it I looked at it and his old blanket just like the one I got here is old and along the borders. Are you the threadbare you can see it's worth I said this isn't on your blanket. This is an old blanket and my sister was sitting there she stood I know what this belongs to a woman down in one Denis she had this for years. So this is an old blanket. Oh, well, he said I'll take her down to the basement in police station. So we went down in there and all the things that took away from the people bones after bones are betting their coats or jackets and and also required you to have to do this a box full of billfolds. Hard to believe it belongs to people that were in there. So I open some had their social security and driver's license what not in them beautiful and they had a box and another box full of belts. What are they going to do with them belts that many belts and in one corner was jackets sweaters. And hats and caps that they took away from the in people trying to freeze them out. I think it took him all the way from them and then never got nothing back to this day. And one day I asked Eastman. That's how about those things that you took the boy from the people that I gave him? Well there in Deadwood for evidence. So it's over there. I said no I said those are mine that I give it to them. And we found out they were in Rapid City and he lied to me. Now again, I wanted to know where the where are those things that they took away from the people. They're in Minneapolis Saint Saint Paul for evidence. I wonder if they really got those things here. This is a good chance for us to find out if they're here. That's what they told us. My goodness her crew how mean there are. Jackie Wilson is a cause of all this do you think because your son was killed that the Wounded Knee occupation came to an end stopped. Yes. I said I don't want anybody to get kill anymore. One is enough and Frank Frank Clearwater died to just before my son got killed. I think it was about two days before he died in Rapid City. And that's the saddest part was they told his wife he went after her in the helicopter and they told her they were taking her to Rapid City to see her husband because he wasn't going to live he wasn't expecting so she was willingly jumped in there and when they took a ride down to the gym when she got up to Rapid City he was That's the kind of a lie. They told her did you convince Dennis Banks or others in Wounded Knee to to stop the occupation. I asked this the Chiefs full scroll was there. And I think it was bad, but they're Leonard Crow dog. And that's the only way I can bury my son in there if they If they quit in the occupation why I know I can bear my son in there. If the Seas far is said there they'll do it that they had Chiefs. And they couldn't do it. They wouldn't let us in so finally. Cheap full scroll told me he asked me why can't you bury him? At porcupine at the cemetery and after this is all over with you can bear him in Wounded Knee. And this way they'll be no trouble. Well, I want him to be Barrymore Linnaeus. I don't care what that's what he wants. So I want him to be buried there. And Leonard Crow dog said well if they don't want you to bury him there in one Denis bring him back to Rosebud because That's Amore Jeanette from Rosebud reservation and he'll be buried by Clearwater and everything clears over you can take him back there wanted me know I said, I want him to be buried and that's where he's going to stay. So we went in three times to negotiate with the head Chiefs. And they finally decide to government and ask him. That we're going to bury him underneath that's what he wants and he was the men. so he said well, I guess you can bury him there. Go ahead. Well, he said Wilson. I want a written in a statement that saying that he can be buried in one Denis. You might change your mind by the time we're going to bury. So no, he said it's all right, go ahead or give me a paper. She said I'll do it. And I think she's the one had a. He signed it. Your son was in the armed services wasn't he and one day. He said I think I'm going to And listen to service all that's up to you after I can't stop you. If I say no something happens. I'll be the blame. And if I say go and something happens when I die, I'll be again so that's all up to you. So he did he before they draft me 600 K. So he went in an overseas one boy came back and told me you know, he said Miss Lamont. You can keep your son from going overseas. I said could they do that? He said yes, you can't because that's the only boy you have that he don't have doesn't have to go over sea duty, but for me, I can't because there was nobody for me that I have to go. So I said well, I guess if he wants to. So I told him and he said no. I don't think so. I want to go. I want to see the other side of the world and see what's going on. How to fight acid that's up to you. So he's he went he went back in. And he never had a fertile. He just went right straight through and I didn't know where he was or anything until about a month later. He wrote from Germany. That's the time they was having that. The invasion in order Russia was coming in on the German. improving And he was one of them that stood guard when they were coming and he said it's a pitiful sight mom. He said women and children running from their homes from the streets don't know where to go when the Russians coming in the army. Well, I guess it is a terrible thing, but I don't know why they have to be doing that trying to kill each other. So that's where he was and he said I want to be over here and that way you people can rest good sleep good. to fight for my country and nothing don't happen. He said you'll see me and I'll talk to you. That's what he said. And he send me a hanging on the wall hat wall hangers, whatever they are. When one side was John F. Kennedy outside was Robert F Kennedy. He sent his head from overseas instead of me getting it here in United States. That's what he sent back. Do you know to this day who killed your son? That's what I said. That's what I like to know. But someone hurt over this radio from the Marshall to said there's a good Target. He came out of the bunker. And he went to a close by the house. He went in there and came up and start running back towards a bucket when they got him from the back. And if the high powered rifle used on it, that's why that pathologist said know if I do not have to change my story so he's on the government side. If he told us what kind of bullet they used on him. And of course we pray and pray but someday we're going to find out who killed him. The government that the Marshals are the FBI's for the Bia cops or the Goons. That's what I wanted to know. So when they asked me to court, that's what I would like to know who killed my son. after he went he went on his own will into the service overseas and back then the government killed him. No, I rather see the invoice stay back. If there's another War then when they come back the government my kill them all on this side instead of a cross. I don't think you'll be fair. I rather see him get killed over there and come instead of coming back over here in the fighting for the country and then get killed over here at home by the government. How do you think your testimony helped Dennis Banks and Russell means in the Wounded Knee trial? Well, I think they're fighting for us for the treaty rights and that's what my boy went in for. That's what he was fighting for. He didn't know he didn't realize but of course, my mother knows those things and he hears them things. and another thing Maya migrate aunt and uncle was killed in Wounded Knee. in 1890 1890 So my mother was 12 years old when that happened she sir. And then my grandmother always tell me she was in that Custer's Last Stand She always told us just worried happen describes a place but I never had a chance to you know to see it but a few years back we went to Crow agency and then coming back. We visit the customers Cemetery Little Bighorn. Yes, and we went all over the hills and just the way she describes that we sought tombstones here down in the drawer on a hillside all over where this song. soldiers got killed so my grandmother was in that Custer's Last Stand. But she survived they did. and after I think it always is just wonderful the way they In those days, of course, they don't have too many guns. Imagine. But they want off at Custer's Battlefield. I mean they want off at Custer's bad. So I knew about that long ago my grandmother used to tell it. And just where they camped and what happened. You when I was small all I could hear my grandfather my grandmother tell about the Black Hills since I was knee-high to a grasshopper. And the treaty, LOL. I didn't know what treaty was then so he didn't bother me a bit. And then a pony claim. What have they got to do with a pony? What point is what kind of a thing is that? I always wonder and this old lady here that she's 90 some years old. Why the hell she was in an app that pony claimed. She said they took all the ponies away from them. She said the wife into going up on his way from us. She said the other day, that's what they call a pony keg. And they never did see that was your mother in Wounded Knee in 1890 at the time of the massacre. Yes. She was with her parents. He was 12 years old was the oldest. Of the family. She was the only one that time. Of course they were young my grandmother and my grandfather when they were young. And her parents were killed there. No, not her parents. It's it's her uncle and her aunt got killed her and they had a little baby, but they didn't kill the baby. So that took the baby in the fled towards north that's towards with Anderson. And it was a school house there so they went there because the baby didn't have no milk. It was breastfed baby. So they stopped there and the teacher was a teacher and his wife so that the baby did she ever describe to you? What happened in Wounded Knee in 1890? Where they had this where this song? 7231 Danny people were that's where they can't horse. It had teepees, you know all in a circle. Give us to have a ghost inside or I guess they did have the Ghost Dance. And now they're all there. and all of a sudden way soldiers came in on that. And as far as I remember, she said she'll show up that hill going down into underneath. There's a little healing along the side that's where they had a big gun a cannonball or whatever. It was that there's a big gun there on that hill and that's how they kill all the people down in there. And there was no shelter have no kind like that church in the houses are there now, but there was nothing. And it was in the winter so they couldn't hide behind the bushes or nothing. So they just stayed in their teepee. And when that heavy shooting went on they just took off. They ran over the hill. without nothing somewhere chill, but she said they couldn't turn back when her uncle and her aunt got killed, but my grandmother just picked up the baby and left. And she was the oldest she was alone and he was alone then so they went on until they got to the school house and then his teacher took the baby they went and they went into Rosebud reservation. That's where they settle down and that's teacher said the some interpreters are so he said that will keep the baby for you until everything settled and then you can come back after it. So they did it. Anyway, I think you would must have been about three years old because she said he walks and he talks when they went back after him Why are the teachers wife said she just cried when they was going to take him? And of course, he didn't know us too. Well, you wasn't acquainted with us. And he speak English. And she's cried and cried. So my grandfather said well since he's an orphan no father and mother and he doesn't know that his father mother got killed and he goes north. So why don't you just let them have it let him, you know take him. Maybe he'd be better off. Maybe they'll give him a education or something. You have a better home. So they did and they went home crying next after the teacher was happy while they were at home crying. And this teacher moved away. and I think it was in Chicago or Detroit somewhere And in 1930 something he wrote because he was a heir to some land. And other how did he know that he was in Indian energy from land. So my mother was 12 years old so he must been really younger maybe still alive, or maybe he is dead. He was a doctor doctor Miller. So that's what happened to my parents my My grandmother and my grandfather and I never realized that my son was going to be there right there where they were buried. So their names are on that stone. There's times that I go visit the Grave Just Cry Cry. After I never once thought that my grandpa my great uncle and Aunt repaired here in my son was going to be buried. the second mystcraft and again, it's wonderful that that my great uncle and Aunt are buried there. They were mowed down just like they did to my son. but it still hurts because he didn't do anything to anybody. He wasn't the kind that goes around drunk Raising Cane. at night kicking doors in anything. He isn't the kind of a guy. but like I said He had leaving this treaty and that's what he said. They mentioned that in a court today that we will win this game. That's just what he said. And you people are going to be happy. I just couldn't take it. When did I mention that I couldn't stand it because that's just the word used that we will win this game. You wait see. Mrs. Lamont was one of the only five witnesses put on by the defense. She wore black on a trip to Saint Paul and she has since the death of her son and is she told me that she will for a morning. Of three years in the traditional manner of Sioux women her courtroom appearance made it clear or testimony will be some of the most difficult facing the Wounded Knee jury in their soon-to-be deliberations. I'm Kevin mckernan.


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Efforts to digitize this initial assortment of thousands of historical audio material was made possible through the Minnesota Legacy Amendment’s Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund. A wide range of Minnesota subject matter is represented within this collection.

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