John Eccles, distinguished professor of physiology and biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo, speaking at Nobel Conference XI: The Future of Science held at Gustavus Adolphus College. Eccle’s speech was titled “The Brain-Mind Problem as a Frontier of Science.”
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The future of science is of course in Inman subject. It can be dealt with as a general problem. The growth or aggression of science the economics of science big science versus little science the future of biology the future of Space Science and so on. I decided to divide Pike talk to one very special aspect of the frontiers of science. Hence, the title. The brain-mind program is a frontier science. I asked the question in the first place. Can we Define the limits Beyond which science may never go the final limits of science, or should we try to do shadow? I attempt to illustrate the way in which we may be able to overpower us. What if it had to be regarded as limits in the very special field that has been Central to my scientific life. And that gives rise to this problem the frontier. By the way, don't think that I am a knocked out on the limb. There are many other distinguished people in the past and at the present time who asking the same question and then I am going to buy a rotation. I will give from the speech of doctor yesterday. He said I must but I must have went to set that a fugitive science in which its present cannot remain static is no future at all and essential quality of science is is dynamism the continuing search for new knowledge of nature the new insight for new formulations of ever-increasing inclusiveness precision and elegance. And so I attempt them with the challenges to see how I can approach this problem of the brain-mind and the frontier science is this device called made a valuable distinction. He's contacted the two frontiers of science. The internal Frontier is a very broad area where the basic scientific principles are not in question the weather phenomena are so complex that they are not yet understood and explained nevertheless. They appear to be in comfortable by the present range of scientific hypotheses and investigations at the atomic molecular geological and biological level. the external Frontier borders on those Realms of nature that lie Beyond presently understood principles that is important distinction Realms which according to comprise the nuclear and stop nuclear was however, I would suggest that even in complete Solutions of the brain-mind problem will entitle such a revolutionary changes in existing science that the external Frontier is transgressed also there. On the contrary Vice cough adopt a puppy popular panelist philosophy on the brain mind problem in his statement brain research is currently one of the most important internal Frontier. Is that really what it may be difficult problems like the nature of thinking and memory are approached them to directions to neurophysiological studying the physics chemistry and biology of the nervous system and through psychological methods setting the observed phenomena in the brain This research Resort boarding kennel from two sides. From the physiological and psychological side. The two approaches have not yet met but hopefully they will well, I'm sorry to say that I think this is a complete misunderstanding of the problem and I don't worry about that too much because how can we expect physicists to follow us in all that detail conceptual development? It's reciprocal. I can't follow them either you or not. It appears from that statement that all we need is more neurophysiology and more psychology, which is curiously to find the studying The observed phenomena in the brain that of course the night psychologist that would stand for that. I think hence the front. But I think this is a mistake and to make my objection explicit. I will briefly introduce this free world philosophy recently formulated by Papa. I think this is one of the many great advances in conceptual salt and fat time. The three Wells comprise everything in existence and inexperience. I've got to try I should have a slide to this but I'll try and do it. Well, when will be over on this side well to hear and well three there he was on the screen. Where is the world of physical objects and states. It comprises the whole Cosmos of matter and energy and all of biology into the human brain. That is the total material while the total. Well does a materialist you recite his world 1. now where to Is there throughout the states of Consciousness and subjective experiences that comprises in totality as sensory perceptions and cognitive experiences even to creative imagination highest level together with the cell for a go which would each of us is the bassist value unity and conscious continuiti as and experiencing being, you know, you went to sleep last night you wake up this morning you feel the same self ale you've been unconscious for hours. This is the experience to a whole lifetime and which recognizes one another that's the self. But besides that is why I say that is all the perceptual experiences and all all these other highly memory imagination song. where to that's the world of conscious experience is in the is the Initially private to each of us so it is subjective. But it can become objective lenses are revealed to other selves by linguistic or artistic expression or by gestures which might be at all levels of Saturday. That's the human the human relationship you talk to people you just get my gestures you communicate to criticize and so on I owe you my mate diagram or poetry and Son kinds of ways. We have a communicating thoughts to others and that is the whole basis of society. Finally World 3 is what Papa calls the world of objective knowledge and this is something much misunderstood by people. It is the world of culture that is made by man. And that was typically makes man in his own lifetime each man. It comprises a hold of culture and civilization most important language where else we include the expressions of human creativity that have been preserved in coded form on world when objects at the paper and ink of books that world one paper and ink, but the ideas who did that I didn't see it when you asked the question. What is physics or what his chemistry that is a world 3 option. the whole coded information and systematization that has been created by man, which is available experience do any of us who want to examine one or other aspect of science and social science is in World 3 being created by the thoughts of men in World 2 and expressed on objects like with books and so on a diagram in World War 1 you will see how comprehensive is this free world philosophy is The creative efforts to give a scientific account of nature constitute one of the most important components of World 3. Brain with statues that's the world 3 activity, but the object study night membranes line tollywood in world one. So I would agree with Vice golf. The brain research itself can be classified as involving an internal Frontier science. We have an immense ongoing operation in what we call neurobiology or what you will there with conventional scientific methods studying putting up hypotheses testing and so on in the ardmoreite material mode. So that is an internal Frontier science terribly complicated imagined principles involved in men's complexity. and a challenge when you think of when will science never hey, you can believe this is too complicated to be on to add imagination or together. We only know the time instead of fragments of what is involved in the operation and construction of a Blaine. and the kind of Brian understand your brain might be the question you could ask it is otherwise, I can't bring it to mind that I understand the brain never mind its brain feel like it is otherwise with the brain-mind problem because this problem concerned interaction between two different Wells the world one, which is the wealth of material State physics and all the rest of it and welded to the self conscious mind who do science has been restricted to problems arising within world one. It is Evans to the have been quite a lot of scientific studies on the world. When will too when you come to examine it it is evident that you will be an attack across an external Frontier the science. We're moving out of the Purity material mode into this other World War II and investigating the relationship between Best brain scientist and philosopher survey this confrontation against touch her and her endless Frontier by espousing some variety of Saigon Noodle parallelism. You see you're up against something that's outside physics affecting physics, and this is Teresa. It's a shocking concept of the best. The conscious experiences in Madras view of parallelism out of got it as being merely a spin-off from the New Orleans Event being punched do have an Associated conscious experience. Now, that is an incredible me all contributing to my conscious experience. This simple variety of parallelism is suddenly mistaken. Never been thawed out. Actually, you cannot find anywhere in the philosophy anything more than a general cover of a statement like that. It's mistaken because the great majority of you are activities in the brain do not give right because it explains a lot of happy all the time and I'm not conscious of them. Even when you sleep you have almost as much brain activity is when the other way and you can be completely unconscious with a large areas of the brain, of course in which no one likes a the cerebellum, which is a field my light over many years working and that there's nobody ever thinks it's any Consciousness in the brain events in the cerebellum. Parallelism is unable to account for the experience that sort can give rise to action. That is if you just have breyn it action going on all the time in the spin-off from those is consciousness. Your conscious experiences cannot get back by powers and by their very tentative parallelism to Brian action. And so it's an illusion to think that I can for example if I want to move my finger on my shoulder and so on they just moved because of brain action and I am alluded in thinking that I was the instrument in causing that to happen. You said you never can accept parallelism as soon as you look at it in detail. And then and even more pervasive experiences that we can Will sitting train Euro Machinery to recall memories to bring him to Consciousness. You know, the way you have it to get older. It's harder every calling at one time or another name or one event or another and you try to Trigger 2 strategies and you get it back from the databanks in your plane and check it and it may be correct or it may not and by your recognition memory of that sort of thing. According to parallelism is played out by the brain and the idea that you are deliberately examining your memories and checking them is simply an illusion. When you can criticize is very effectively this cycle you are parallelism on philosophical grounds and more recently in the book The Popcorn. I had a very comprehensive attack upon it. There is really no seriously developed science or philosophy describing how it's going to happen merely dogmatic statement. And that is what makes me feel. This is another kind of superstition each age lives with his superstitions, which I examined the beliefs held rigorously and distended with great emotion and parallelism is in that class. I think and I almost forgot myself as one of my missions in life is to discover superstitions and eradicate them, but you have to realize that he leaves behind at those superstitions Witching Hour recognized for what they are and of course to Phillips and you lost history of mankind will shows that And one has necessarily to be always on the god with critical evaluation. The only philosophy that consistently attempts this extraordinary problem of dealing with the assertion that every mental Clarity brain action. Every new election has a conscious experience associated with is panpsychism, which says that that's in the very nature of things that every object has some element of mentality in it and it was more and more developed from atoms and molecules through two macromolecules and Fouseytube cellular structures and higher and higher organized levels eventually to the human brain and there it is fully flowering in a conscious experience. There's a little ironic attack on that glass of water and a glass of wine every night. No maybe in excruciating pain. are you only have to make the postulate that the excruciating this if it's pain is matched by the stoicism of its fortitude and it's Well, I think panpsychism is a refuge of people who don't want to see anything new ever introduced into the Seamless Web of the world. They live in that nothing like Consciousness could have evolved because it was always there in the by primitive structures. And and the other thing is that if Consciousness as parallelism asset can do nothing can ever get back in cause brain actions then it has no biological significance and therefore is something completely out of the Eeveelutions me story. Something you say I'm a Navy Lucius. I believe that Consciousness came into existence because it had a considerable very important late in survival in adaptation to conditions and that's has how it came it because it is a survival survival because of appropriate reactions to situations. Any criticism against parallelism can be mounted against the teapot chocolate that the happenings in the neural Machinery of the brain provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the totality of the performance and of the conscious experience w&b. Put example voluntary movement can be regarded as being completely determined by brain events. And as I've been staying and papa good example makes the statement read it to you and you'll see how telling it is according to determinism any Theory such a sight determinism is held because of a certain physical structure of the holders brain accordingly. We are deceiving ourselves and I physically so determined to deceive ourselves whenever we believe that there are such things as arguments or reasons, which make is accept determinism. Another word physical determinism is a theory which if it is true is an arguable Ticketmaster explain O'Leary actions, including what appear to us as beliefs based on arguments as you too purely physical condition. Purely physical conditions including a physical environment make us a or accept. Whatever we say or accept. Well, this is of course. An untenable position. It's a reductio ad absurdum. against determinism and parallelism with its rejection of parallelism and panpsychism. We can front the great problem of the interaction of brain and mind the world and knocked of Shaving her. And this interaction occurs across the frontier between the world of matter and energy where I was one and the world of the self conscious mind World 2. And you might wonder what is the subconscious mind, you know what I'm talkin about, you're all prepared to talk about energy and the parents. Are you contana Center holding on to it, but it's direct experience. Of course. It doesn't even require the indirect observation for the matter-energy where it is directly experienced and such a thing as a color light sound music harmony Melody memory imagination and selling. These are all in your self conscious mind with no material Hill County Park in a sense to light with vibrations and so on but not to pain and not to the most sexual experiences with each of us enjoys throughout whole Waking Life. The world 2 is a very real well towards that is more real and more primer is Eugene vignette says don't know where I was one of the primary experience. How can we investigate then this problem of how brain events are related to mind of its by using scientific methods? It would be a radical extension of the scope of scientific investigation which in the bicycle internal Frontier thing is investigating events in the material physical with principles of physics governing the interactions. Now if I stop there goes on to say I believe that at least potentially signs can justifiably claim the ability to understand every observable phenomena. However implicit in this claim to completeness is a very important qualification if when asked a question can does or will scientific inside cover every aspect of Human Experience the answer must be negative. The show that this statement does not contradict the complete this claim. Let me give a simple example and vice cost example is a Beethoven Sonata, but it could be any of the creative imaginative performances of the human mind the whole question of personal relationship. Can we come in there are not covered by scientific investigation, so I expect only can be And so I agree with Vice coffee gets out from the completeness claim and my story. My effort is not to make a complete explanation of all of human experience that to extend the frontier into special aspects of it that can be investigated scientifically. Bernoski to distinguishes between two modes in which human beings attempt to understand firstly there is what he calls the poetic mode and secondly is the scientific method as expressed by bernofsky modern physics also leads to enlargement and a fundamental change in the relation of the human Observer to the world of experience, which is trying to understand scientific late and we have heard already yesterday. I express the beauty of a scientific new scientific theory with its inclusiveness and its Elegance. These principles as bernosky States expressed in revision of the idea of knowledge that shift the emphasis away from the impersonal record and put in this place in relation to human Observer cannot be abstracted. I'll do more that's in the moment. The scrutiny of experience is no longer idealized as an activity that could be carried out by a machine and that's what the setting era today to sync. The machines can substitute for men in the essential nature of a scientific investigation The Human Condition is also the necessary condition for the recognition of order in the world. We are far removed from the inductive of philosophy of science in which the Observer thought of as collecting data and extracting there from the laws of science with a quite impersonal machine, like exactness deck was the old era of science this clean between the scientist on the one hand the number of nature on the yellow provided the operational condition during the Great advances of science from the 17th century on to the 20th century bacon and mill. They're the key role of creative imagination was overlooked in Siri. It was exemplified in achievement of the great scientist. That is the size of the sun. That's what Bob Becker in their performance than the Siri that I thought they were working with. The achievements of Galileo Newton or the darling example of imaginative creative experience. Inductive sings. I just didn't sit on all these recordings and extract the idea is that mine was at 5 beyond the material records. I'm reading it for example says this in regard to a simple of scientific measurement. The measurement is not completed until it's result into that Consciousness this last step because when a conversation is established between the state of the last measuring apparatus and something that directly affect a Consciousness the last step is the present state of our knowledge shrouded in mystery and no explanation has been given for it in terms of quantum mechanics or in terms of any other Theory. This quotation focus focus our attention back onto the brain-mind problem because it now turns out that we are crossing Andre Crossing backwards and forward against the across the frontier between World War 1 and World 2. In the brain-mind problem. There are necessarily two completely different sets of another to be related on the one side. There's a study in more detail of the events happening at the human brain in relationship to self consciousness. So we come to develop concepts of organized complexity in Saturday in the neuro Machinery of the cerebral cortex that out of a different order from anything done to exist anywhere in nycha. I want to stress that it's very much misunderstood that here is something wrong path 1 1/2 kilograms. If you have in your head looking like a bit of cold porridge and microscopically nothing very distinguished and yet and it's operation. It gives us every the incredible performance challenge. Now it's been a great deal of work done on this phone more than most people know relating even to this question. We're in this to hemispheres, which I assume I've never seen might bind by the way, but I assume it's at behind here somewhere lying right back there in Germany. They put me through and I found it too was there and now we're in my everywhere in the brain or in special places. Now when they split the corpus callosum and I have water slides for this but I can show them to you have to use your imagination that you can separate the two hemispheres from this great linkage of 200 million of the other side separate them. With this is being done without serious disability and a wonderful new inside namely that and this is the first thing the speaking hemispheres are always on the left side that is events hear that part of my brain isn't speaking of all the areas which are associated with Consciousness. The rest of the brain is processing information and so on but I am concerned and of course at my mental events only when it hangs it on and oil packs of the brain of handing on information to other parts of our process Beyond any concept we have the intensity of operation ten thousand million cells arranged in modules and organized and fighting and prep 20 times a second day or more than that each one of them being a passenger day is something which Beyond any concept that we ever could have but that's what goes on in the human brain. Now we have it now. That's the left side of the brain and we can get more and more to find investigations about this from the disorders of the brain and recording electrically from the human brain had to give us some beginning Concepts about what brain events lead on to conscious experiences. Now it is not in question that the happenings in the cerebral cortex are necessary for the experiences of Consciousness by the subject that I will agree. But I do not think that they sufficient that is brain events must be behind that conscious experience is off of the ordinary ones that go on type of fishing for these conscious experiences you because what you have got to move into another world world two of the Mind self conscious mind and that he has another operative conditions this new outer entity beyond what the brain is giving. Now that is where the problem starts to become a suicide very tricky indeed. If you believe that everything in the brain was necessary and sufficient for Consciousness, then you're in the perilous position. If you don't want to fall in the parallelism for this frustrating philosophy of determinism, you have to go beyond that into this new world cross the frontier. And consider what is this world Tuesday in this world of Consciousness that we all experience directly related to the brain and how does it have an independent life some operative live as well as the brain life and that I think is essential in the new story. So now I go on how can we have confidence that we can scientifically advanced in the study of the brain mind problem. You see you might say that we're getting into all of this phone a field of the psychic and so on and losing ourselves losing a scientific base, but I would maintain that I question if a question is scientifically based we must propose explanations are hypotheses that can be criticized by other in the light of known facts on the existence hypotheses. That is the way science advances by formulating as precisely as you can the new series and then having them criticize by others and so gradually gaining insight and understanding And these new hypotheses should serve as a challenge to further testing by experiment specially designed for the purpose. One must not naively as soon as I think I'm Pete explanation of this plane mine problem lies at hand, but can we advance at all? In the limited and professional manner and that is what I am trying to do. I mentioned to you just now what time will an allergy from Five Coffee, but that is too simple. It can serve. All right, y'all this morning of the whole from two sides, but this is what I want to find psychology in action. In this new adventure across the frontier, we can't have anything simple. I brought in the tunnel for one to the outlet back what we can do we can do experiments scientific experiments on conscious experiences on the one hand and there's a great deal of things and relate them on the other hand to what we know of right now actions. We should try to interlock many approaches on the great problem being very modest in are expectations. We will not be one blinding flash of Discovery, but we have to put up a hypothesis we have to dare to do this to try to move science into a new mode if you like. and attempt partial explanations put example in conscious perception does the whole of the visual experiences? For example, the holovision there's a large amount of scientific investigation using standard happens in the ways of lights and colors and intensities and so on and using the Observer consciously to report that what he experiences there is even a whole pile Spectrum investigation by Stevens where he is investigating the intensities of inputs to sense organs on the one hand and the experiences of Decepticon. The era and Ken report life is been crisis. Brighten twice is Bryson to tell you go right up and can build the sky and it turns out to be a past you do experience versus imput in this way. This time was touch and sound or any other kind of sensory input. So that is waxing done on a scientific work on this problem today. And the thing is to bring it all together though. That is what is lacking in some overall comprehensive Siri, which would a neighbor as a picture to be brought together. And then there's a wealth of data from Tunica work. Listen to the brain or kinds of leading to that kind of drug actions and Saint from which one can again derive the experiences that reported by the subject and the Brain actions on the island on sleeping in the same mode. Now I come to how can we develop a hypothesis related to this? And you see I am committed to having left beside outside parallelism in panpsychism. I am committed to a dualistic interaction hypothesis the existence of the events in World War 1 the New Orleans in world to the conscious experience events of the subject and how can I relate to one another because they do really like brain events gives you experiences conscious experiences conscious experiences can modify act on the brain as they do when you want to example move in response to your desire at all. When you want to recover the memory or any of the other countless ways in which you want to express your thoughts. Then your cognitive experiences have to give rise to New Orleans and so ultimately to movements or expression which others can observe. That is what life is all the time and yet it's completely unknown how we can do it. Well, here are then some of the basic modes in which we can to find at a problem. I assume is the relationship between events in the mind and the Brain on the one hand you rid of ants in the liaison brain and we got that now somewhat to find in this location and I some correspondence between those events and the conscious experience just arriving there from but not a rigorous relationship as they would be in parallelism College pumpkins. the other thing that is very remarkable is the unitary experience that each of us have All the time, although there is an immense Lee disparate import into a brain. Play just to take Mission. I look at this room here. Now with all the fat faces in Rose and the colour and the lights and all the rest of it and yet picture to me know where in the brain can this be seen in the retina? Yes, you can see the image made in my Reckoning by the lenses of this picture. But never doesn't come together. Again. It's coded into the brain cells fighting in this way and response to it. The most sophisticated lines of different orientations in length and so on but that is all we ever find ourselves responding to never a picture. And of course you don't have and The elusive thing is that the that the visual of the scientists go on looking for another two more and more complicated patent to response, but it is late. Limited what you can find anywhere and the answer I give is that that doing looking the wrong way what the brain does it codes the picture up to a point, but it's the mind. The greens it out the picture reappears not in your brain between your conscious experiences. That's white with the unity the synthesis of Sight and Sound and touch inform comes together as an experience. Not as a brain event. The brain event is necessary, but not sufficient for your experience. And a focusing comes on the tension at any moment, you can concentrate on one minut object in the whole field and the rest of the field becomes background. And again, he is an action on the brain. I might mention that kind of ironic way in which should a scientist working in this for you speak about the problem of the grandmother cell the grandmother sellers. Eventually, they'll find in the brain. I sell weed every time your grandmother if he is in your visual field baton, they are in any kind of relationship to sell gasping and you know that your grandmother it's only the only change I've heard in that story recently Marilyn Monroe's house. That is that is real fine. This is this the ironic way of saying how hopeless the task is to find the picture in the brain. The picture is in the mind recognized by us. Now that'll feather more complicated. Things are possible quickly. There is for example, not a complete correspondence in time between the New Orleans Saints and the experience to be there very fine investigations by Liberty in San Francisco on conscious perception of objects by shop stimulus to the hands and so on and he can show their way with backward masking and Auntie dating that the conscious experience may be felt by the subject before the related Europeans is Andy dating as he calls it and that's playing tricks with time. And another one that you might have experience. I've experienced it. Once in the tragic situation of almost being killed with a truck accident but as the event got closer and closer time slower and slower. I saw this great hunting track at the time seemed to be forever cuz I was getting the car slowly away in the truck was getting closer at the DeSoto going to hit me in the middle and then back of the car and saw time ran so slowly in that emergency that is again. The experience time is is handled by your mind quite differently from the brain events. Which one do you want me to talk time events? I think you must have most of you presumably have had that kind of experience shows you that there's something different in mind events from brain events. And then there was finally across the effective thing. I've been mentioning before that. Mind of ants can work on the brain and bring about actions if otherwise you would be committed to being simply an observer of the ongoing brain action could give rise to all your performance. If you believe that there is any possibility of you by taking thought acting speaking resisting and doing what you're arguing. Communicating if you believe that there is reality in that then you are committed to the action of brain of Mind upon brain. So let us try to build a philosophy relate to World War 1 and World 2 and of course the big problem you're up against Italy ask the question here is the brain with all of them have self complexes you like all of this operation going on in the matter-energy wild if what is this other world to is it didn't matter energy and there's no let me answer can be it's a different well that if it wouldn't matter energy you're back in town. It's outside the most direct experience yet. It is acting upon the matter energy world except in special prices in the brain. now Papa makes I think a very good statement about this you would meet at your sink. Well, the only hope you've gotten physics is indeterminism the Quantum indeterminacy of Heisenberg. But Papa makes this statement that closed in the telestic world one would be a well router by chance. You see if you have him to tell if you'd want to. As I as a little way into the matter-energy wild to control it because it's only a chance at this level but not sufficient to allow for you and freedom and especially for creativity by quitting Papa. What we really need is a thesis that we're all one matter in the world is incomplete that it can be influenced by well to that we can interact by wiswell to or that this costly open Caldwell to and hence further towards Wellsley. That's the way I'll hold off objective knowledge has come back to a central point. We must them on that world one is not self-contained door closed, but open towards World 2. And that is I think of any strong statement indeed, but and now opening this is how you're getting to Annex across McDonald Frontier sign if you make them on to that kind. And so the statement of the hypothesis is your self conscious mind is actively engaged in reading out from the multitude of active sentence at the highest level of brain activity in this liaison. Where is displayed off of trade report from instant to instant the whole of the complex neural processes and you have to think how mentally complex there are what is going on in your brain and somehow scanning or or is this you have the Mind self conscious mind reading out from the brain according to attention and choice and interest or drive selecting from the brain the total performance of it? Small fragments of that performance to blend together into an experience from moment to moment. In that way the subconscious mind achieved the unity of experience that we have this hypothesis give the prime role to the action of the self conscious mind and action of choice and such thing in discovering and integrating. The neuro Machinery is a liaison crying that is part of the cortex that this much legs are on this side is the world one component of the interface. You got the brain action on the one hand brain activity in interphase and above that if you like diagrammatically World 2 And the subconscious mind not only receives from the newer Santa's but also modifies them in an interesting manner backwards and forwards. That's we propose that the self conscious mind exercises to Superior interpretive and controlling roll up on the neuro events. A key component of a hypothesis is that the unity of conscious experience is provided by the self conscious mind and not by the newer Machinery demuro Machinery is never brought together. No 1 and no 2 biology can think of any possible way in which the immensely disparate operations of the brain come together to give you this Unity of experience from moment to moment. The brain events remind disparate being essentially the individual actions of countless neurons that are built into complex circuits and so participate in the spatio-temporal patterns of activity. I mentioned that already with the visual experience. We got all you looked at my visual cortex now, and all of that is the area is already you would not find the picture you would find little pieces of the picture in lines and Contours and so on and that is all you ever get. The thing is God. We brought together only in your conscious experience a present hypothesis the gods and Euro Machinery as a comp the multiplex of radiating in receiving structures, but it does not itself provide the ultimate synthesis. Be experienced Unity, not coming the neurophysiological sentences in the brain action back from the proposed integrating character of the self conscious mind. And we can you might say then what is the evolutionary reason for the self conscious mind and I would say that this came to Consciousness came to animals further down than primate about it came last to do this integration when the patents and pictures and complexities all the input became greater than greater. And then some kind of Consciousness evolved superimposed upon the material operations to give this unifying character and consequently a response appropriate responses to the total Ensemble performance. You could imagine that the self conscious mind might be playing over this new machine. Now that may just give you some kind of picture if organized ourselves. We know in columns in new your brain about what you recite 10000 cells in a column is a little units of operation in the first place for the new Nintendo life and we have about at least two million of those pipes in that they left brain and this number of total performance of The Columns and you can think of a million, that means a square of 1000 and each way and that is the ticking performance now in my plane and that would be a great area like that's in the and the mind is scanning. That's whole thing like a Searchlight or like multiple scanning and probing device and that gives you the weed out which is been available for integration. It might be claimed this hypothesis is just an elaborate version of parallelism a kind of selective parallelism. However, that would be a mistake. It differs radically in the important respect. That is his selectional not taking the whole on some but selecting from it patchy Manor scanning it over from moment-to-moment assembling it together and integration and furthermore reacting back on it. 50 Best Buy action of the Mind upon the brain the brain upon the mind that is the essence of the theory and which is of course denied by Paramount. This is exhibited by all that experienced by in free sampling memory trying to probe into you were familiar with the task of trying to recover the name or a picture what you will some experience and you probe into your brain to try and get it and and receive back and give to it until enough mentioned that already but this is all a deliberate action and then movement is again a very important aspect of this and everything beautiful experiments done by Korn Huber in Ormond associate with show that when you are bringing about a movement ready carefully controlled substance is not triggered by any signals is heavily controlled and moving any just take your fingers like this for the start when you do that the subject lies there and it's already heavily instrumented averaging the responses of the brain and bleeding from the surface here. For example, when you're doing that the subject line depressed and The long intervals without any triggering signal mood ring once and then the whole of the electrical response is recorded and stored you do it again you start again. And what you are doing is the every time the movement of cuz you get the impulses in the muscle hear. Those are electrically used to read back the responses in the brain 2 seconds in the computer and tell you I have this this backward integration. And so you add up 250 of these perhaps the subject takes about an hour to subject line there. And when you do that you find out that have 2.8 seconds and this is confirmed by others before the movement occurred there was building up over the whole records hear negative potential. I revert positive down was here and that this gradually mounts happen eventually comes through and concentrate on the actual area of Lake pyramidal cells that give rise. Pyramidal tract concerned in the movement and it was another lot of sales at another place. But this is involved. This is a new relaxation which is pretty by the voluntary command to move. The finger at least is a scientific observation and that game is exactly in accord with the hypotheses this much more days till you can go into this one as a particularly relevant scientific observation, which does show establish. I think the willing to move the finger on the brain and cause action. It's very weak a long time. Is it would be this time is employed in building up this record of spatial temporal patterns in many millions of urine operation here, which is why is it so large and taking so long is because I think the influence of the Mind upon the new art events is very weak and gradually has to be developed Amplified by the New Orleans and eventually homing in on the right cell to cause that the north that you're all familiar, but you can do that. This is what you want to move your finger. You don't do that. When you were a baby learning the very first movement then you often did that instead of slashing you had to learn how to handle your brain to bring about the right action. If you don't believe me, look at the nearest baby you can find and see what's going on. I mean in the first few weeks of life. We won't let these things and we take them for granted. We don't realize the immense learning experience that he is trying to make your brain do the right things. Now this is a complex story about what you heard of ants are in relation to the mind in this giving and receiving in the columns that I've given you these organized Karma by astrologist the sky particularly bison Agate, I I build upon all the very latest findings back. We are still terribly ignorant to the detail and have ourselves events the life being turn on you run a life of the column. This is another approach to the problem both side. You have to investigate what are the New Orleans Saints and what are the experience events related that to this iron maintain is the way in which you can Advanced scientifically in this problem beta testing out the hypothesis, which I have very briefly outline to you. We have cost to make the puff the postulate that in these very special areas of the brain and a very special conditions world one at the well one operate is open to the influences of well to ask for example in a Command Performance to move. Across that interface is the real problem what goes on a cross that interface? And I want you to realize that I'm not making as it were a big demands against the first law of thermodynamics. This is only on this very special Dynamic conditions in a very special states of neuronal poised that it happens at all happens that he weekly indeed taking a long time and recording match New Hampshire for caitian in order to eventually Express itself at the firing of nerve cells and the movement but immense amount more work is required on what goes on in the human cortex in this way. He'll do you have to have special conditions for experiments that will let you have so much of their brain the time the two lead from and this will be down there and see When you're doing these movements exact today, I what happens to nerve cells brief report by Goldwing so far on that but it is all in the field of a command acting up on the brain. They're very specially designed structures. That is the city but one doesn't know what the design is. No one you might say why don't people see what's going on. The answer is that they wouldn't know what to look for and if you don't know what to look for you on find it. It's like that inside you got to have some highly sophisticated series liquid guide to your imagination Intelligence being able to look in the immense complexity of the bright. It is knows if you just looking for something very easy to describe an organized complexity of a kind that is beyond our understanding it back. I would predict that progress will be made for ready. We are getting very fine electron microscopic Daddy's and the electrical recording studies a single year. I'm inside primate brains and eventually becomes a human brain and we may know what Dream on my speaker, but this is an immense challenge for the future in which very few people are working. I would like to close with a vision of the future Express the nautical Cove out if I blichmann distinguished Nobel Laureate in physics. He says it seems to me that the human race stands on the brink of a major breakthrough. We have advanced to the point where we can put a hand on my ham of a cut that separates us from an understanding of the nature of our minds. Is it conceivable that we will withdraw a hand and turn back to discouragement and lack of vision? Thank you.