Elisabeth Mann Borges, an expert on maritime law and the protection of the environment, speaking at Nobel Conference X: The Quest for Peace held at Gustavus Adolphus College. Borgese's speech was titled “The World Communities as a Peace System.”
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We have begun this new year. Not without a sense of dark forebodings enough crisis. We are rather painfully aware of what one might call the disintegration of peace. It is politically economically socially we have lived through a difficult times and I think we see more of them ahead of us. The tenderest piece and Indochina has all the broken down and how long the mid-eastern cease-fire withhold is a metaphor speculation. The disintegration of Peace his many aspects and many facets. Some of them are internal and some of them are external and they Interlink in one comprehensive problematic. No another and less usual way of looking at the same complex phenomenon is to start from the Assumption of the disintegration of War. It's a logical compliment to the disintegration of peace. And procedures that I want to explore with you today is that war far from being a part of human nature is in fact is social institution with its Beginnings with its Heyday with it sticks lying because it said the generation and visits disintegration. No, but this ceases I'm not really placing myself unconditionally on the side of the idealist and optimists. Those who hold that nature has Law and nature lesson is peace and harmony. People like Erasmus from Rotterdam and others of that kind and that that man is rational and that reason will eradicate wall. I agree. The couch that we must be realistic. Although I should like to permit that idealism and optimism to a certain degree are socially more constructive more useful then cynicism or pessimism either of these two basic attitudes tends to act in some way. At least it's a self-fulfilling prophecy. You see by Nature. I'm also I'm a pessimist. I'm a romantic but every morning I forced myself to be an optimist in order to be able to act but you cannot send you a pessimist no more has been compared compared in these discussions and elsewhere to a disease which is a part of human nature and which may be controlled may be alleviated but it cannot be eradicated. I would rather compared to slavery which as an institution existed for thousands of years. So much so that it was indeed considered part of human nature by philosophers ranging from Aristotle to George, Washington. you know men were not supposed to be for an 8-foot some men were supposed to be born as slaves and some men were supposed to be born its master and yet slavery as an institution was abolished when the socio-economic structure of which it was a part is intubated and give rise to new technologies into new systems of production which made slavery and economical Not while only the most steering profits would have anticipated only a couple of hundred years ago. That slavery could be abolished. No one in his senses today, but that it is part of human nature. This of course does not imply that exploitation has been abolished but the institutional framework of exploitation has been significantly. Christianity of course had something to do with it. But Christianity has been around for good long time and found being found quite compatible with slavery. It was only when idealism and ideas converged with economic interests. That we had a Leep forward which neither idealism alone. No realism alone could have achieved. This happens when slavery abolished. It's happened when colonialism was abolished and I suspected something of the sort is not happening to war. Vo disintegration of War as a social political and ideological and a technological component and they all interact. I would like to briefly look at the other technological component. We all the way of the fact that the nature of modern weapons his totally transformed the nature of War. We like to think that eventually it will make one possible. But at any rate the boys so I can no longer what it used to be used to be in I indicated that before and during the discussion used to be a tidy sing at least through modern history of it is all throughout the history of the modern nation-state international law distinguish between Soldier and civilian between military targets and open cities are provided for Declarations of war and for the termination of the state of War walkthrough treaties and War and Peace. What's a where is sharply delay needed and circumscribed describe the nation-state it sent. The so-called victim of mass destruction did away with all this all you have to do to understand this is to look at the change in the ratio between military and civilian casualties. In World War 1 the total number of kills with approximately 10 million people and 95% of these soldiers and only five were in World War II over 60 million people were killed. It's really staggering and the percentage between 2% with soldiers and 48 civilians. During the war in Korea. of 9 million. 84% resilience and only 16 years old and in a Vietnam the percentage during the second World War. I remember there was a story of a young man in England during the blitz who volunteered for the London office to say, goodbye. And says brother like a hero and the bus looked at in Fay critically and said you called. The weapons of mass destruction have brought War back to what it was before the emergence of the nation-state and before the development of international law. It's quite surprising but the proportion between military and civilian casualties during the Thirty Years War but I might call the dawn of the nation states was approximately what it was in Vietnam at the dusk of the nation-state because he professional armies at that time, but small has been limited and the rest was done by pestilence. By the kind of this where the kind of weapons of mass destruction that I did not either distinguish between war or peace between soldiers and civilians are coming back to now with the threat of bacteriological warfare. But the rest of mass destruction is not the only Factor hastening the obliteration of these distinctions between War and Peace. Modern war is no longer a war between One Sovereign Nation against another Fault by national armies. It is a struggle conducted by one nation against part of another usually supported by internal factions or regions within that Nation. It has become an international Civil War without boundaries wear regular armies fight alongside or against Protestants vietcong's other non-governmental units. It will of Terror against civilians against diplomatic and businessmen against athletes against airline passengers. And it isn't it likely that International terrorism is not going to disappear. But that it's going to increase for the actions necessary to stop it would have to touch on the very core of our political systems International terrorism. I feel is an intrinsic part of the disintegration of War and the disintegration of peace or the state Beyond War and Peace in between a living. No, this is a development of Guerrilla warfare and of terrorism is Clyde intimately connected with the development of yet another type of readily available weaponry and that is substances or agents that can be used for peace and follow such as atomic garbage in a chemical and biological substances Lisa Technologies. Material logical Technologies substance is the concept of wet and that belong to what in US politics is called a dual-purpose category of fatness, but let me point out why I think that this development is community important for the future of One Piece. first the existence and the growing importance of this type of button on wedding contributorily to a road the distinction between War and Peace and it also totally transformed. What's the problem of disarmament and of arms control for if we can no longer Define a weapon and if we need to substance or the technology for peaceful purposes for development, how can be prohibited and how can be controlled it? So it if we say to control these Technologies Technologies agency substances are dangerous in peace as they are in war that uncontrolled peaceful use maybe it's disastrous and its consequences for the environment National and international as they use as weapons and walk and I'll come back to that later and first and now I'm beginning to turn a little bit of the Mystic. Get something that we can do at citizens. He has a point of attack baby can improve the condition of this world at this time? Because the Technologies empty institutional Arrangements that we are beginning to create an to use to manage resources and protect the environment. I was saying that we need to control this new type of battery. In other words. If we take Serious measures to enact environmental policies, which will have an arms-control effect and instead of getting arms control and disarmament through arms control and disarmament treaties, which is the history of the last hundred years has shown is a hopeless approach we make at Arms Control and disarmament is a byproduct of successful environmental in developmental policies. This is what has been called passive arms control and it may be built into a series of new international institutions. We may have to establish over the next quarter of a century to manage Technologies and resources who's affect a transnational. I know this new type of organization is what I called World communities giving to community the meaning that it has a quiet in the term the European economic community. If they will indeed have an arms-control effect is to the European communities. Then we might say that they form a piece system that is that were in a traditional institutional form would no longer be possible. It would abolish itself as slavery ended in change the socio-economic circumstances, but just as the abolition of slavery still left exploitation. So the abolition of War will still leave and its way other forms of violence of the type of terrorism. Gorilla that we had already noticed on the scene. No, let me give you a few examples of what I mean by these dual-purpose agents that so transformed the nature of War. Chemical factories in the biological Laboratories essential to Industrial into agricultural development, but it's equally obvious that any country possessing chemical factories has some potential for chemical warfare biological warfare is within the reach of any country which can produce vaccines. List of chemical and biological agents that are now available for destructive or constructive purposes for development of forward is really troubling. I think that the walls of this temperature with blush if I started to enumerate the horrors that we can do with chemical and biological weapons. When you produce these weapons at the production stage then maybe only economic motivations of a producing them. But once they are there this agency substances can be used if a piece of a wall all that's needed to change of intention and stockpiles of chemical agents produce for peaceful purposes become stockpiles ready for military use to determine acceptable levels of permissible stockpiling of chemical or biological substances Even more impossible is there controls in the traditional sense of international Arms Control? Via Stockholm International Peace Research Institute published last year a report chemical disarmament some problems of verification, which also has some rather detailed blueprints models of how economic data reporting and monitoring techniques could be used to verify the non production of chemical warfare agents of the report. Is that a centralized National system for monitoring economic data on the production distribution and consumption of chemicals within a country could be a viable mechanism and an international chemical disarmament agreement. That is to control or prevent the production of chemical weapons. We need three things. We need a totally new approach to Resource monitoring and inventing seconds. We need a new form of cooperation between Science and Industry and government and search. We need a new way of interlinking national and international systems. That is we need exactly what we need to enforce environmental policies. These are the three ingredients and organizations for resource management that is development Environmental Management. And we threw ourselves wide open not only to the use of this most gasque wedding and what is called legitimate Warfare, but true that abused by terrorists by Gorillaz the band of Outlaws. I'll give you another example of fossil fuels for energy everything including Industrial Development of urbanization agricultural development and transport are going to depend increasingly on new alternative sources of energy and among these atomic energy looms largest Investments made in the development of atomic reactors fast breeders. In fact, so huge that nothing except a major disaster which unfortunately related to witness and deflect this development during the next 10 years or so. but Atomic reactors produce a garbage of atomic garbage that will make it fast out of the non-proliferation treaty and because disposal problems for which at present simply that is no solution the same type of national International Machinery that has to be devised for the chemical resources must be provided for another enormously striking example is meteorological weapons and Technology. But I think I won't have time to go into that because I do want to say something more about the kind of institutional Arrangements that we need. Although the material things maybe we can discuss that ended the discussion. But Lisa technology is another example, but I should like an hour to go to the discussion of the organization and that is being created and Recreation indeed every one of you can help to advance that is this new type of international organization that would deal at one and the same time and this is it would be that one at the same time with rational resource management and development with Environmental Management into his arms controls. Not by chance, we might see if we believed the chance could determine matters of such complexity and of such momentous important because the situation was ripe and because the right man via uniquely prepared and gifted Ambassador David paddle of the small country of Malta coincidental is half a sweet this mother Swedish into the United Nations, when it so happens that the first of these organizations is being created in the oceans. The United Nations issue probably all the way off his declared the 17th, the first International decayed of ocean exploration and this year of the other Foods United Nations conference on the law office. He's getting underway in Caracas Venezuela to completely revise the law of the sea and to establish new institutions for the rational management of ocean space and resources. Be all that way up the fact that defeat of the oceans today's endangered by the proliferation of Technologies, which of the one hand intensify traditional uses of ocean space and resources and introduced many new and unheard-of ones the oceans living resources who's renewal in the past was keeping peace with the autism autism methods of phishing are beginning to fall behind in the race with new industrialized methods of exploitation. The maximum sustainable yield is being rich much sooner than had been anticipated only a few years ago. In fact, the last few years have registered a decline in the world's total in this at a time. When really the world's population is fast-growing and especially the poorest Nations depend on the productivity of the ocean for the largest part of the animal protein requirements Let me know that shipping has increased boots in size and in the number of vessels Freitas and tankers carrying half a million of deadweight half a million tons or more a clouding International Waterway Sand Street collisions and frowning sound the order of the day releasing vast quantities of pollutants pollutants into the oceans. Under water storage tanks floating super parts of it being built to accommodate this novel form of Maritime traffic and all these new installations are prone to accidents that are vulnerable to sabotage. And at any rate that designed for a certain percentage of regular lost a waste accumulating in the ocean a solution. Some of you may have read an article in the paper States last days about the Spectre of sludge of New York New York coaster that is where the city of New York is through decades now accumulated literally billions of tons of the filthiest flood which is forming a kind of a dead sea off the coast of New York miles of it. I kind of awful mess of goop neck and smelly and infested with bacteria and viruses of all kind hepatitis, Colorado. And at this mess this group is now leaving itself on the ocean floor mile by mile about a mile a year toward the coast of New York and Long Island and it is calculated May reach the coast in about another three years and that that may be a disaster the lack of which we have not seen yet in these parts of the world. Well, we are at the beginning of a revolution in Mineral mining in which the oceans are playing in Eminem Role of oil production today accounts for already about 20% of the world's total oil production and it is estimated that that would arise to 50% over the next few decades via recovery of Manganese nodules from the deep ocean floor and the industrial processing of Manganese Nikki Cobalt other metals in practically unlimited qualities and logical consequences of this have not yet been correctly assessed. The urbanization and industrialization of the coasts discharging this huge amount of organic and inorganic waste into the ocean or rivers and pipelines the industrialization of Agriculture generating runoffs of chemical fertilizers in the discharge of DDT. Which reaches the oceans to the atmosphere the swelling of Tourism and the recreational uses of ocean space the use of the oceans for human habitats better underwater on an island with all this contributes to complete ulceration of the balance between Land and Sea factoriza being moved out to see all refineries are placed on offshore platform airports are put an artificial Islands new energy resources & Technologies, which will fuel our hydrogen are economies of the future with the ocean based and no longer than taste. The military are moving into the oceans science. The ocean scientist has made such a gigantic appropriate during the last decades that they have really revolutionized our view of the Earth. Will it play Santa is no law is a national or International to regulate this new and challenging uses of the ocean and existing International Machinery is totally inadequate unregulated. The it is the intensification of our juices and the addition of so many new ones when entering the conflict and waste on a scale unknown in the past problems, which affect the health of the oceans in the survival of men problems, which are truly transnational in scope and must be solved internationally challenging task. Now before this great conference that I mentioned that is to minimize conflict and pollution in the ocean to maximize the benefit from its Founders resources for all nations and especially for the developing once and to this end to create comprehensive institutions for the rational management of ocean space and resources And coming to grips with this task the conference must deal with a number of very fundamental problems, which are even bigger than the oceans. Problems of international relations and international organization in general such as the relations between the developed and the developing nations. The development of a new world science policy and the development of a new design Armament and arms control policy in the weather. We want it or not and this again due to the fact that so many of the technologies that are essential to the monitoring and control of pollution in the oceans from underwater tracking devices to Boise distance to satellite all have an arms-control effect. And this for the first time does GIF disarmament it charms. We make it as a byproduct of the rational management of ocean space and resources. Not on this we may act. This is our chance. I've mentioned only have a few of the problems and I've mentioned in a cursory way. But they may be sufficient to indicate that what is needed is importing new type of international organization a type that encompasses politics that encompasses science it encompasses industry and that is interlinking National and International competences in the NuWave an international organization that may become the Prototype of international organization in the 21st century problems, which which we feast in the oceans and apply the solutions subsequently to other areas of Technology with transnational effect such as the management of outer space and satellite technology. because outer space just like the ocean has a military in the civilian aspect satellite technology is a superpower weapon developed by the military for military purposes, but it is increasingly becoming an instrument of development the role of satellites in monitoring Earth's resources is just beginning to be explored and exploited and an international organization for the management of space and satellite technology, which could fairly closely follow the pattern that we are creating the sea ocean institutions would be an instrument. For development and for peace An energy was Community for the in venturing of energy resources the coordination and the study of energy Technologies. And the transfer of these Technologies the study of the economic monetary social political economic impact of alternative energy policies on the International System the management of energy policy since elsewhere, that would be another major step toward the development of peace and the realization of a policy with Developmental and environmental and arms control impact. And we see our so-called energy crisis upon us. I think we may be closer to the establishment of such an energy World Community when we today sync the establishment of a World's energy Institute as a first step toward the creation of a management system has been proposed by a growing number of organizations, and we are working on that at the sentence on the Barbra to It might be well and idea whose time has come. And last year, I think that before the centuries over we will have a world to community for the management of weather control modification. None of these new organizations, of course must be allowed to be dominated dominated either by the big Powers by the superpowers or by text Chrissy's I call these organizations communities in order to stress their participation an aspect. They must be political economic scientific that is standing on one leg that is intergovernmental rooted in the general assembly of the United Nation. And on one leg that is not a governmental bringing in institutions of learning institutions of producers of Consumers National Organization. The order of territorial Nations that was our International order until now with the order of non-territorial transnational functional reality is an issues which today is shaking up restraining order of nation states. No, you still may see that this is a far way of compressions realities. You may still say it would require that Nations give up part of their sovereignty and that there is no sign anywhere that nations are ready to do. So on the contrary, it can be documented that nationalism is on the rise all over the world. To this I would answer first. The nationalism in the twentieth century is not at all what it was in the 19th. The nationalism of the new nations in Africa trying to assert their independence from their former Colonial overlords and to win the battle against hunger and against under the weight of mint has very little in common with the nationalism that sell France and of Germany during their period of Empire Building. The nationalism of the new nations is not necessarily an upstart into International integration on the contrary in a certain sense. They need international corporation for Independence and development. and second and in connection with this the concept of sovereignty sovereignty it says just like everything else in the stage of change is changing. It is assuming a new dimension. This new dimension is participation participation in the making of decisions that directly affect you. The effects of the new Big Technologies as we have seen a transnational pollution does not stop at the national Frontiers and if we want to control it we have to control it if we don't control it. Well, then the citizens of any country especially if any small country a possibly exposed to the consequences of Technology technological choices made outside be under control and that is for all practical purposes. They have lost their sovereignty. It is only through participating in making these choices or decisions that nations in this age of Micro Engineering and of macrotechnology can regain and reassert their sovereignty. If you have time in the discussion. I can give you a list patience for this. And this participation requires a network of organizations or communities of the kind that we have been talking about? You see that up two ways of looking at International integration all the relations between the parts and the whole that today. The world is the whole world. That can be no doubt when you look at it in a mechanistic way. You come to the conclusion that the whole gross at the expense of the part which is to surrender sovereignty at any rate reduced its own power of attorney or stir the pot roast at the expense of the whole and so the whole weekends and tends to disintegrate But when you look at the same process in an organic way, then you realize that the part develops and grows as the whole develops and grows and each part. In fact reflects the whole at any time. This applies to the relationship between nations and the International Community just as it applies to the relations between the individual and Society. Integration, is it mechanical or additive process and genders opposition and conflict between the part in between the whole integration is an organic or if you want to draw an analogy for mathematics as a topological process and Jen that's what I called for existence of girls. That is the parts and the whole revolver Monica Lee in together. Not only between the eighteenth-century mechanistic worldview and a more modern organic one. We also have a contrast between what you might call Occidental and Oriental order. These are brought over simplifications. For the Occidental self-realization or development and growth of means the development of that part of the self that is different from the others and we think we have developed ourselves for the Oriental on the other hand. Self-realization means the development of that part of the self that is embedded in the trans individual. I think it's a more modern and a more useful concept. The orientals and in particular the Chinese also have a fundamentally different way of looking at pollution and evolution control. They realize that the pollution is waste and they believe that the problem of pollution will be solved only when all wastes are productively utilized they teaches that the three evils and quote of pollution that is waste gas waste liquids and waste solid can be turned into three advantages that its resources for production. This can be achieved through multi-purpose linkages of production systems. That is factories are linked together by the wastes. They produce plants that can use the waste of a large Enterprise are constructed nearby and does economize on their own purchases of raw materials. The Chinese say that the failure to analyze the Dual nature of pollution is clearly at the root of the failure of most of the industrial world to deal with Environmental Quality problems effectively, and the problem is very similar to the problem of pollution. It seemed that way. The weapons it produces have a dual nature. If the three evils of pollution and waste gas waste liquids and waste solid the three evils of the arms race and of the military-industrial complex are the waste of Manpower and Ingenuity the waste of money and the waste of the environment. The problem will be solved only been all this waste a productively utilize that is when multi-purpose linkages of resource and technology management systems will turn them into the three advantages of development of environmental enhancement and of Peace. Thank you very much.