Forum: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's Nobel Prize in Literature acceptance speech

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Listen: Forum: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's Nobel Prize in Literature acceptance speech

On this Forum program, Paul Scofield reads Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn acceptance speech for Nobel Prize in Literature.

Solzhenitsyn was awarded prize the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature," but was unable to attend ceremony in Stockholm, due to Soviet government.

Read the Text Transcription of the Audio.

Alexander solzhenitsyn is regarded by many literary critics as the greatest living Russian author, but International Fame the publication of several major novels and the award of the 1970 Nobel Prize for literature have not improved his relationship with Soviet officials. He has virtually become an outcast in his own country drawing from his memories as a political prisoner during the stall Indira solzhenitsyn wrote his first novel one day in the life of Yvonne Denisha bitch in 1962 at that time. He was a claimed by Soviet officials for his account of prison life in a stalinist concentration camp, but in recent years, so he has fallen out of favor with Soviet authorities, especially after writing a letter to the Union of Soviet writers in May of 1967.In it, he demanded no literary censorship in Russia. All of his recent novels have been enthusiastically received in the west but they remain unpublished in the Soviet Union is expulsion from the Union of Soviet writers in 1969 indicates that none of his Works will find Soviet publication in the foreseeable future Alexander solzhenitsyn is a descendant of Cossack intellectuals. He was born in 1918 and grew up in southern Russia. He received a degree in mathematics and physics from the University of rostov. Although he once had dreams of becoming an actor in 1941 solzhenitsyn was called up for service in the Russian army in 1945. He was convicted of writing a derogatory comment about Stalin in a letter to a friend. He was sentenced to 8 years in a prison camp while in prison operation for cancer on the day of Stalin's death. He was released from prison and exile to Soviet Central Asia today. He lives in a town.Several miles outside Moscow from party and government officers has Jeff was removed from leadership in 1964. Although he had several of the Soviet Union's leading Riders on his side Soviet officials continue to denounce him and bar publication of his Works. He was accused of aiding the enemies of the country. Although his books are not published in the Soviet Union. They have been published in many Western countries many without his permission is most widely known novels include the Cancer Ward the first Circle and August 1914.In 1970 Alexander solzhenitsyn won the Nobel Prize for literature a prize. He has been unable to receive in person. He fears that if he leaves the country to accept the prize in Sweden, he will not be allowed to re-enter the Soviet Union when an official of the Swedish Royal Academy sought a visa to enter the Soviet Union to present the award on Russian soil. He was denied entry like other Nobel Prize Laureate chosen Newton had prepared a speech for the presentation ceremony a speech that was never delivered by the Russian author a written form of this beach has recently emerged from the Soviet Union and the words of Alexander solzhenitsyn have been recorded in the studios of the British Broadcasting Corporation by actor Paul Scofield A Primitive Savage object. He holds it turns it this way and thatWhat kind of be something called stop by the ocean something better than this and falling from the sky and object of intricate curves it twist it round in the Bible. What is the way it reflects the light first dim the den with flashes of brightness to some use to find some lowly purpose for the vaguest notion. It exactly the same way. We human beings holding up in our hands out of them to imagine that we had its monsters. We both laid directed renew it reform it display. It sell it for money indulge the powerful with it use it for light entertainment for popular songs all night cab attractions. From time to time we arm ourselves with it to fulfill some passing political purpose or some limited social need but cannot be solid in spite of our efforts. None of its original genius every time and in whatever way it is used in Grants are some small part of its own in a secret light. But we would be able to grasp the whole of this light who will dare to say that he has defined off counted every one of its aspects apps in the past Century is that was someone who understood someone who could put a name but we humans were not content with such a situation for long we listen to it then neglected it and then finally pushed it away, but we are always quick to change even the very best of what we have so long as it's for something new. And when someone tells it to us again, we no longer remember it all the fact that we once knew it. One office imagines himself the creator of an independent spiritual World takes it upon himself to create and populate this world accept full responsibility for it, but he breaks down because no mortal man. Even a genius is capable of bearing such a button equal a man who has declared himself. The center of all existence has been unable to create any evenly-balanced spiritual system every time he fails. He lays the blame on the Eternal disharmony of the world on the complicated nature of mother man, the shattered soul on lack of understanding by the public. Another artist knows that there is a higher Force above him and find joy in working as a Young Apprentice and the gods Heaven, although he dust has an even greater responsibility for everything he writes or paint and for the people who appreciate his work, but on the other hand this world was created by Him and is not rude by him. There is no doubt about who built its foundation. The artist clearly has the gift of sensing more cuter than others the harmony of the world and the beauty and ugliness of man's contribution to it and of communicating this feeling to others. In failure and even in the depths of existence in total property in prison or in sickness his sense of his continuing Harmony cannot desert him. How about the whole irrationality of art? It's blinding convolutions. It's unpredictable discoveries. It shattering impact on people are too magical to be exhausted by the philosophy of anyone artist by his intellect or by the work of his unworthy fingers. Archaeologists have discovered no stage of man's development so early that it contained no opt-in the dawning her flight of human existence. We received it from hands. We were not able to see how do we have not the time to ask what we've been given this thing for what are we to do with it? They were wrong and they will always be wrong those forecasters who say that will generate exhaust each one of its forms and die it is we who will die. will remain and when we have the time before we perish to understand all its aspects and all its appointed uses. Not everything is given the name. Something's carriers beyond words, even a frozen Dawkins so and bring it to high spiritual experience through the medium of art we have some time to send all their belief in investing play Revelations that cannot be explained by rational fault. It is like that small Looking Glass in the fairy stories. You got into it and you see not yourself. Put instant. You see the inaccessible. You will never be able to ride that or fly there. But the soul cries out for it. Dostoevsky once made the mysterious remark the world will be saved by Beauty. What does it mean? For a long time. I thought it was just a phrase for how is it possible when in our blood stain history as Beauty saved anyone from any thing Beauty has ennoble that elevated? Yes, but whom has it ever saved? However, there is this characteristic in the essence of beauty this characteristic in the position of Art. A truly artistic work is completely in a few to be convincing and Ben's to it will even the heart which resisted a political speech a piece of one-sided journalism a plan for a new social system of the new philosophy smoothly and efficiently composed. It seems on the basis of a mistake or a lie. No, is it immediately clear what has been distorted or hidden? And then some quite contradictory speech newspaper article or plan appears. I'm quite different destruction philosophy all just as smoothly and efficiently presented just as flawless. This is why people trust these things and yet they do not trust them. It is useless to State what ones hot does not feel? But it work of art cat is in itself. Its own checking system strained invented Concepts do not stand up to an examination of that images of both the concepts and the images collapsed spell showing up as Palin feet books. They convinced nobody but what's with your grown up on the truth and presented it to us in life concentrated form capture us and drawers compulsively in I never even centuries later. Will anyone be able to refute them? Can it be that the old Trinity truth goodness and beauty is something more than a well-worn for loan cliche as it seemed to us in the days of our self-reliant material is used. The wise men of old used to say that the crowns of these three trees merge why the branches of Truth and goodness being too obvious and to straight a crashed locked and not allowed to grow but if this is the case, maybe the Fantastic unpredictable unexpected branches of the Tree of Beauty could fight their way right up to the same place and that's a tree of the task of all three. Then surely downstairs kiss words. The world will be saved by Beauty will emerge not as a slip of the tongue but as a prophecy, but it was given to him to see many things. He was amazingly inspired. And then the hats off a literature really will be able to help today's world. The other few things which over the years I have managed to discover about this task. I will try to explain them here today. Inventing this platform to deliver my Nobel Prize lecture. I appreciate that. This is a chance made available to by no means every writer and then only once in a lifetime, but it is not by three or four wheel carpeted steps that I have climbed up onto the stage but by hundreds or even thousands of them Steep and healing steps Kitty with ice up out of the darkness and the code which it was my fate to survive While others perhaps more gifted and more powerful than I lost their lives of those who died I myself met just a few in a labor camp acapella go that's scattered far-flung multitude of islands. Look as we were by police surveillance and general mistrust, I could not talk with every man. I met and there were other men. I only heard about another still whose existence I could only guess at this who sang into the help it off to already achieving some literary note out at least known and remembered but how many more that must be who died totally am known never once named in public was the man with such good luck has to survive. A whole National literature has been left there. Not only without the coffin, but without even a vest or a pair of shorts naked with just a label with the name of it tied around one toe. Not for the moment. What's the flow of Russian literature interrupted? Get from the outside. It seems like a desert. The tree fellas did that work. They left not a healthy Forest to grow up where they had sinned. the just two or three trees Miss. Apparently by accident So today in the company of the spirits of my full own colleagues. I bow my head to allow those others who deserve this honor Morgan I do to take my place on this platform. But how am I to guess or to express what they would have wished to say? This is a duty that was laid Upon Us many years ago. And we understood it. In the woods of Vladimir solovyov. Although in Chains we must ourselves complete that Circle chosen for us by the Gods. You're exhausting forced marches in the camps as we would take him to welcome back again to our hearts with those little chains just shining through the Mists of the evening Frost many was the time when they arose in our throats those words, which we would have liked to shout out to the whole of the world. If only the world could have had just one of us. At that time it seemed quite obvious. What are fortunate Emissary ought to have said and how the world would immediately respond with help. I feel the vision was crammed full of physical objects and spiritual movements. And you know, I totally an ambiguous world. We saw nothing that could have posed them. These folks did not come to us from books. They were not borrowed for that attractiveness. They were composed in prison cells and around campfires in the forest in conversation with men who are now dead. It was this life which tested the faults and this place which gave them birth. But when does outside pressure was relaxed like all of us I had to broaden my field of vision and gradually if only through chinks in the fence. I began to discover and take note of this outside world and we were shattered to find the this outside world was not at all. The thing we'd hoped it would be. He was not living the right way or going in the right direction. It would see a buggy swamp and explain what a Charming little Meadow it would see a set of concrete around a woman's neck and exclaim. What's an Exquisite necklace happy and carefree with songs and music others shed tears which no hand could wipe away. How did this happen? How could such a golf elbow pain. Who were the insensitive ones? We all the world language? What is it that some words even though spoken distinctly an out loud? A quite incomprehensible to some human beings. The words Fade Away disappear like water without taste without color. without smell Without a Trace Slowly I began to understand all this and as I did and the years passed so the content sense and tone of the speech. I hope to make the speech I'm making today changed and changed again. So that now I'd best little resemblance to the wind originally conceived during those frozen evenings in the camps. man has always been built in such a way that his philosophy of Life and Legend used by hypnosis is motivation and scale of values is actions and intentions are determined by his experience of Life both personally and as a member of a group What is a Russian saying do not trust your own brother? Rather trust your own I even if it is a Crooked I And this is the most healthy basis of all for understanding our surroundings and our Behavior inside them. antolin centuries Walla world was split into numerous for flying people's before it was turned into one single convulsively beating lamp people were honoring the governed by the experience life in their own limited locality in that own society and in the end in their own national territory, It then became possible for humans to see individually and to adopt a certain common scale of values to decide. What is average. What is unbelievable. What is Crow? What is beyond the bounds of criminal law? What is honest day what is deceit? I don't go people lived in widely scattered countries with different ways of life and although their scales abnormal social behavior could be just as different systems of measurement occasional traveler was surprised by these discrepancies. They would be printed in journals as Bazaar items but in no way did they endanger the human race for it was still in no way United. But not within a few decades the human race has imperceptibly suddenly become United reassuringly United and dangerous to United. So the disturbance or inflammation in one of its parts is almost instantaneously transmitted to others. Sometimes these parts possess no immunity to that particular are you the human race has become United but not United by the solid links that used to bind the community or even an issue not by the gradual growth of our experience of life. Not by the evidence of our own eyes crooked though. They may well be not even by some other time. We all understand this unit cementing every barrier put in its way as come about through the world's newspapers and radio. The flood event sweeps over us and within one minute half the world knows about them. But there is no yardstick night of the press know the radio can give us the means to evaluate these events and judge them by the laws which exists in the parts of the world. We do not know. These yardsticks have for too long and too exclusively remained and the Cubs orb in the particular life of separate countries and societies. They cannot quickly be flown somewhere else people of different countries, bring their own tested scales of values to events unyielding and in full self-confidence, they judge by that scale and by no other It would be untrue to say that that is a multitude of these different scales a few things that happened near by and ask a over things that happened far away that is a scale for ancient societies of a scale for young ones schedule for the happy and another for the unhappy the scales show a glaring lack of similarity eyes and to avoid the pain we shy away from all other people scales. That's why I shied away from Madness or delusion and confidently biotin scale for this reason. What seems to us greater more painful or more intolerable is not that which actually is greater more painful or more intolerable, but that which is nearer to us anything further away, which is not actually threatening to arrive on our front doorstep today is accepted by us with all its grounds of pain smothered screams destroyed lives and even millions of victims as something generally tolerable and within reasonable limits. Prince of Subs too long ago in one place. They were persecutions. No less severe than those of ancient Rome in which hundreds of thousands of Christians gave their lives in silence because of their faith in God In another hemisphere I said Luna taken probably is not the only one rushes across the ocean to a man of steel at the leader of the church and free us from religion. He was using his own scale of values to work on behalf of us and everybody. By one scale some far-off place may appear as a land of the most enviable benevolent Freedom by another scary places nearby that appears to be such miserable the people overturned by Sears in the street the same standard of living will in one country beyond for episode of unbelievable Prosperity as cruel exploitation providing every reason for an immediate strike. That are different scales for natural disasters a flag, which claims 200,000 victims seems less important than an ordinary accident at home that are different scans of human humiliation in some places a sarcastic smile or a dismissive just you can be most degrading accrual physical attack as soon forgiven and seen as no more than a bad joke. Set a different scales for punishment for crime by one scale a month of imprisonment or banishment to the country or solitary confinement with white bread rolls and milk has the imagination and newspaper columns with Andre protests. Another scale of values except as quite normal and possible prison terms of 25 years solitary confinement cells with ice on the walls where they strip you of your underwear lunatic asylums for the Seine and Frontier shootings of complex and reasonable man running away. Who knows where and who knows why And what follows our heads least of all is what happens in those exotic countries, which absolutely nothing is known from which no news, which is only flat related gases from a handful of newspaperman. It is useless to blame man's vision for this double standard for this paralysis for this inability to understand the grief of a stranger who is far away man is built that way. But not at the whole human race is squeezed together in a single lump such Mutual misunderstanding threatened it with a Swift and stormy end with six four or even two separate scales of values that cannot be a United world are united human race. We shall be torn apart by this difference in Rhythm regular oscillation. We will not survive on the same Earth. A man with two hearts is a man who is doomed. But who will bring these scales of values together? How can it be done? Who will get the human race one United system of evaluation for evil deeds and Good Deeds for the unendurable and the enjoyable. How is the line to be drawn between them explain to the human race? What is really terrible and unbearable and what merely rubs are skins because it is so close. Who will direct your anger towards what is more terrible rather than towards? What is Nira? Who will ever be able to carry his understanding of this idea through the barrier of his own Human Experience? Who'll ever be able to make some stubborn narrow-minded human being understand other people's distant sorrows and joys, how can you make him aware of relationships and problems, which he has never himself experienced in such matters propaganda compulsion and scientific proof are all powerless. But fortunately there is a way by which it can be done. It can be done by us. buy literature these two can accomplish a medical they can overcome man's most damaging characteristic the fact that he could only learn by his own experience that he allows other people's experience to passing by can amplify men's short time on this Earth by enabling him to receive from another the whole range of someone else's lifelong experiences with all that problems colors and flavors. Aunt recreates in flesh experiences that have been lived by other men and enables people to absorb them as if they were there. But more much more than this countries and how continents repeat each other's mistakes in later years sometime centuries later when it seems everything should be obviously clear but no something which one nation has already experienced analyzed and rejected May suddenly be discovered by another Nation adopted by it as if it was some very latest invention in the only substitute for experience. We have not personally through is art or literature. They give us a miraculous ability to transfer experience of life from a whole nation to a whole nation in spite of differences of language customer service your system. So these painful Decades of national experience which you have not been shared by The Other Nation can be communicated to this nation and perhaps save it from taking apart which is unnecessary wrong or even disastrous. Opt can sometimes shorten the dangerous Twisted Road a man's history. Speaking from the Nobel platform today. I most insistent check remind you of this great and blessed property art another and most valuable direction in which literature carries condensed irrefutable Human Experience. This is from generation to generation. so literature becomes a nation's living memory, if not Transit and preserves its lost history in the form, which is not subject to Distortion or in the same way literature together with language can preserve the soul of the nation. In recent times, it has been fashionable to speak about leveling of Nations out of a disappearance of peoples in the Melting Pot of modern civilization. I do not agree with this but any discussion of it would be a separate issue it is right that I should say just this. What nations did disappear we would be impoverished in exactly the same way as if old people suddenly became alike with the same kind of the same face. Nations are part of the wealth of the human race. Although generalized. They are its individuals. The smallest of them has its own special colors and hides in itself some special facet of God's design. But woe to that nation whose literature is interrupted by the interference of force. This is not simply a violation of freedom of the press. It is a shuttle across the national heart and excision of the national memory. The nation does not remember itself. The nation is deprived of its spiritual unity and its people or apparently still enjoying a common language setting they cease to understand one another dumb Generations live their lives and die without explaining themselves either to each other or to those who are to come if such genius is as a matter of a rolled-up alive for the rest of their lives condemned to create in silence until they come to the Grave without hearing the faintest response to what I have written. This is not only their own personal Misfortune. It is also the whole Nations grief and the whole Nations Danger In other cases the whole human race is endangered then because of that silence the whole of History ceases to be understood. In different times and in different countries one question has been most heatedly angrily and sophisticatedly argued. Should cops and the artist live just for themselves or should they always remember their Duty before society and working it service, of course without prejudice to his main duty. For me the answer is quite clear, but I do not intend to repeat the outlines of my arguments one of the most brilliant speeches on this matter was the Nobel Prize lecture delivered by Albert, and I take pleasure in subscribing to its conclusions. Also for decades Russian literature has been altered rather than inward-looking. It has never confined itself to frivolities and I have no hesitation in continuing that tradition to the best of my ability. In Russian literature that has long been the inborn idea that a writer can do much for his people and that this is his duty. We do not deny the artist the right to express nothing but his own experiences and observations to neglect everything that happens throughout the rest of the world. We are not going to make demands of the artist, but it is surely in order for us to reproach him to request him to summon him and invega him after all the development and work to a great extent. His gift is something in born and with his talent comes a responsibility for the exercise of his free will. Let us concede that the artist owes nothing to anybody still it gives one pain to see such a man to park into a world of his own creation into the wide spaces of subjective capriciousness leaving. The real world to messenger is on nobody's or even mad men. 20th century has turned out crueler than proceeding ones and it's hot as hell by no means ended with the conclusion of the first 50 years the same. Okay, man impulse greed Envy lack of restraint Mutual will still tell and Ripper World apart. They have adopted such as cause conflict race war the struggle of the masses of the trade unions A Primitive refusal to compromise has been turned into a theoretical principal and is seen as the great virtue of Orthodoxy. It demands victims by the million in steel and finished Civil Wars and still dims into our brains the fact that I know from generally approve concepts of goodness and Justice that all such concepts of fluid and liable to change which means that one should always act in the way that is most profitable to one's own party. Groups of workers or professional men wait for every suitable environment to grab a bit extra whether they learned it or not, whether they need it or not, and then they seize it and to hell with the whole of society Society is being so tossed about or so it seems from the outside but it is approaching the point Beyond which the system will become unstable and must eventually collapse violence less and less restricted by system of laws built up over the centuries strides naked and Victorious over the Earth caring not one jot that it's Terry has been demonstrated and proved many times before in history. It is not just cause violence itself is triumphant, but also its shrieks of self-justification. The world is overrun by the Brazen conviction that. Can do everything while Justice can do nothing. The devil's industrious is the possessed where we thought that goes in a horrible 19th century provincial fantasy, but now we see them spreading over the Earth reaching countries with formula that not even been imagined. And no they hijack aeroplanes seized hostages cause fires and explosions termination to shake and Destroy civilization. And they may very well succeed. People so young that their only experience of life is sex boys and girls with no years a person suffering. So personal understanding behind them are blissfully repeating the discredited attitudes about Russian 19th century. and they really imagine that they discovered something new the degrading phenomenon of the Chinese red guards is accepted by them as a splendid example to follow the hearts of experience so little The understanding of the time this essence of humanity. So superficial how naive is that self-confidence oppressive rulers and the next. That is us once we put away our hand grenades in our machine guns. We will rule with universal justice and human sympathy. But this is not so. The others who have lived a little who understand you could argue with these young men and women, but many of them do not dare to argue. Instead they tried to run that way in among them. Anything rather than be labeled conservative? Once again, we had this in Russia in the 19th century Dostoevsky cold it becoming a Slave To silly little Progressive ideas. The spirit of Munich is not a thing of the past. It was more than one short episode. I would even venture to say the spirit of Munich is predominant in the 20th century. The entire civilized World trembled as smiling barbarism suddenly re-emerged and moved into the attack. If I had nothing to fight with but smiles and concessions. The spirit of Munich is an illness of the willpower of rich people. It is the everyday state of those what giving in to the desire for well-being at any price to material Prosperity as the main aim of Life on this Earth. Search people and there are many of them in the world today choose to be passive and to retreat just so that normal lives may last a little bit longer just so they don't happen today and ask for tomorrow. It'll be all right, you'll see. But it would be all right. The price you have to pay for your, this will be all the worse courage and victory come to us only when we resign ourselves to making sacrifices. Another thing that threatens us with destruction is that are physically compressed restricted world is not allowed to come together in spirit. The molecules of knowledge in sympathy. I'm not allowed to jump from one house to the other. This is a cruel danger this information block between different parts of the planet. Modern science knows that to stop. The flow of information is the way of entropy and Universal destruction information blocks make international treaties and agreements Andalusian. In the zone what information is suppressed it is easy enough to reinterpret Any Given agreement and easiest still to another it or well understood this perfect guy the people who live inside this zone are not really Earth dwellers more like an expeditionary force from Mars who knowing nothing of the rest of the Earth are ready to trample all over it in the sublime conviction that they are liberating it. A quarter of a century ago. I made the Great Hopes of all mankind. The United Nations organization was born. Alas in an immoral world. It's too grew up to be a model. It is not a United Nations organization, but a United government's organization. It puts on an equal plane regime's which were freely elected or which were imposed by violence or which seized power by Force of Arms. The self-interested prejudices of the majority. The organization to strive jealously for the freedom of some Nations and to neglect the freedom of others sequias vote. It decided that it would not consider any private complaints that is to say the grounds screams and entreaties of little individuals who are only ordinary men and women These are insects to Tiny for such a great organization to bother with. The best documented has composed in 25 years the Declaration of Human Rights. The United Nations has not tried to make binding on governments a condition of a membership. And so it is handed ordinary people over to the whims of governments. They did not elect. It would seem that the shape of the modern world is entirely in the hands of scientists, but it is they who determined every technical step which the human race takes it would seem that the world's future direction or to depend on this worldwide community of scientists. Not on politicians individuals among them have shown by the example how much could be done whether to act as a group but so far scientist who made no attempt to become an important active individual Force among the human race at Congress of the Congress. They shy away from other people's sufferings. It is more comfortable to remain within the confines of science this Same Spirit of a spread its energy draining Wings Over than 2 So In This Crew Dynamic explosive World on the brink of a dozen deaths what is the place and role of the writer Of course, we have no Rockets to file off repossessed. Not even one single support truck to bring up the rear with of course. We enjoy nothing but contempt from those who respect on the material. Would it not be under natural if we to what to retreat to lose our faith in the unshakable T of goodness in the indivisibility of Truth, we could then content ourselves with reading the world. I'll bet you observe a patient's from the sidelines on how the human race is. Hopelessly corrupted on how superficial people have become on how hard it is for us. Not only beautiful sensitive souls to live among them. But even this Refuge has denied us once we've taken up the word. That is no getting away from it off towards the writer is not something casual judge if his fellow countrymen and contemporaries. He is an accomplice in all the evil that is committed in his own country or by his own people. If the tanks of his country's Army a bloody Diaz felt streets of another country's capital city, then those brown stains are spotted forever over the face of the writer. And if one deadly night some trusted friend is strangled while he sleeps then the writer to carries on the palms of his hands the bruises from the Rope. And if his young fellow countrymen happily declare the superiority of decadence over honest toil if they give themselves over to drugs or to seize hostages, then the evil stink of it all is mixed with the right has breath. Will we find the bird's nest to declare that we bear no responsibility for the plagues of today's world. I am encouraged by my living feeling for world literature as one great heart beating in response to the Cavs and Troubles of our world, even though these are seen and presented in a different way in every different country. Apart from older National literature is that it exists evening former centuries a concept of world literature. It was a force which bound together each National literature by its peak and loaded the various influences of literature into one force. But sometimes that would be a delay. Readers and writers came to know people who wrote in foreign language is much later. Sometimes centuries like that so that the influence of such writers on each other was also delayed the force which bound National literature together by that Peaks was of used to these writers descendants, but not to their contemporaries. But today the interaction between right as one country and right as our readers of another happens, if not instantaneously at least very nearly. So I have experienced this myself my own books and publish the last in my own country. I quickly found a responsive world leadership in spite of how they'd and often bad translations set at standing Western writers as Henry. I'm taking time to write critical analysis of them. In these most recent years my work and my freedom have not collapsed they have held up in violation of the laws of gravity and seemed to float in the air. They seem to rest on nothing on an invisible and speaking film of worldwide sympathy. Olga's time I realized with worms ingratitude how the world Brotherhood of riders was supporting me. This was quite unexpected. On my 50th birthday. I was amazed to receive greetings from well-known European writers. A situation arose in which no pressure upon they was allowed to pass unnoticed in those most dangerous weeks of my expulsion from the writers Union a defensive War raised by writers famous throughout the world protected me from the worst persecutions Norwegian writers and artists were preparing a roof to shelter me in case as it seemed like I was banished from my country. last of all my actual nomination for the Nobel Prize was made not in the country where I live in right but by Francois mauriac and his colleagues I made it still entire writers organizations in various countries expressed their support for me. So I have come to appreciate and to feel through my own life that world literature as a unifying force is no longer a collection of abstract influences or a generalization composed by literary experts but a common body and a common Soul a living Unity of the heart in which one may see reflected the growing spiritual Unity of the human race. These red lines of national Frontiers are still there inflamed by electrified why as a machine gun burst? There are still some ministries of internal affairs which suggests that literature to is an internal matter of the countries that Gabon newspaper headlines still Proclaim. They have not the right to interfere in our Internal Affairs, but the fact is that in a cramped Little World. There are no longer any Internal Affairs man's salvation depends upon everyone making it his business to know everything. It depends on the people of the East not being entirely indifferent to the opinions of the people of the West on people in the west not being entirely indifferent to what is happening in the East and literature one of the most delicate and sensitive tools, which man possesses is already one of the first to detect adopt and promote this feeling of Mankind's growing Unity. This is why I confidently address myself to the world literature of today to the hundreds of friends, but I have never once Matt and perhaps never will. My friends if we are with anything at all, let us try to help in our own countries torn apart by different parties movements cast and groups. Who was that who from the beginning was not a divisive Force but a uniting one surely it is this that is essentially the writers position to give expression to the national language, which is a nation's main binding forced to give expression to the land on which his fellow countrymen live and in a few happy instances to express also the nation's soul. in this hour of alarm I think that was literature is capable of helping the human race to understand itself properly in spite of what is being instilled into us by prejudiced people and groups. It can move concentrated experience from one country to another so that we are no longer dazzled. We no longer see double. It can bring together different scales of values. So that Nations learned briefly and accurately the history of other nations and all the more intensely because by reading they absorb the pain of what happened they all but experienced it themselves. Best they are protected from making the same mistakes. Later. And we ourselves May by this process develop a certain World Vision. Well, like everybody we use the center of the eye to see what is near we might begin to use the edges of the eye to see what is happening in the outside world. Then we should be able to make comparisons and keep a sense of proportion in world affairs. And who is there if not a writer who will criticize our wretched political leaders? In some countries. This is the easiest living of old anyone does it who's not totally lazy. And who is not a writer will criticize his own Society weather for it's cowardly self-humiliation or for its self-satisfied weakness. Who is not a writer will criticize the softest successes of Youth those young knife brandishing Pirates? They will say what can literature do against the merciless onslaught of open violence. But let us not forget the violence does not live by itself and cannot live by itself. It can only exist with the help of the LIE. Between these two that is a most intimate natural and fundamental connection. Violence can only be concealed by the lie and the LIE can only be maintained by violence. Any man who was once proclaimed the violence as his method is inevitably forced to take the light as his principal. When it is born violence operates openly and even takes pride in itself. But as soon as it becomes established it begins to feel a thinning in the air about itself didn't realize is it cannot carry on living except by masking itself with lies and covering itself up with sweet words. Violence does not always not necessarily take people by the throat and strangle them. Usually it demands no more than an oath of Allegiance from its subjects. They are required merely to become a campuses in the LIE. There is one simple step a simple courageous man can take not to take potable. I not to give you support to folks actions that this principle enter the world and even dominate the world. But not through me. Writers and artists are capable of something more. They can defeat the LIE. In its struggle against the law by heart has always one and will always win. Everyone can see this no one can deny it all I can stand up and resist many things in this world, but it cannot resist off. And once the light is shattered and the nakedness of violence is revealed in all this repulsiveness violence becomes senile and collapses. This is why I think my friends but in this hour of trial we are capable of helping the world. We have no weapons of death, but let this not be out excuse. Let us not get into a life of ease and security. Let us go forward into battle. In Russia the most popular Proverbs others about truth. Insistently these Proverbs Express The People's deep and bitter experiences. Sometimes with striking Force. one word of Truth outweighs the whole world This violation of the law of conservation of mass and energy may sound fantastic but it is not it is the basis for my own work and for my appeal to the writers of the whole world British actor Paul Scofield reading Soviet author Alexander solzhenitsyn's Nobel Prize speech and was unable to deliver the speech himself because of his fear that Soviet officials would refuse to allow him to re-enter Russia. If he went to Sweden to accept the prize solzhenitsyn won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1970 is most widely known novels include one day in the life of Yvonne denisevich. The Cancer Ward the first Circle and August 1914 Alexander solzhenitsyn in the west. He continues to be a prime target of Soviet officials. How does he withstand government persecution exclusion from the Union of Soviet writers and the ban on Soviet publication of his novels as described in a Time magazine article. He is possessed by his love for Russia and his passion for Freedom. This is Georgia Power. This program was made possible with funds provided by The Corporation for Public Broadcasting. This is NPR National Public Radio.


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