Two episodes of a Radio Smithsonian documentary series titled “Black Radio: Telling It Like It Was.” Program narrated by Lou Rawls. Part 10, titled "Let's Have Church," focuses on the religious aspect in the history of black music. Various individuals discuss the role of spirituals and gospel groups. Part 11, titled "Breakin' the Hits," focuses on the sound of “Soul Music” radio in the history of black music. Various individuals discuss the DJs, personalities, and formats that made “Soul Music” what it was.
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4 minutes past while this is midday, Do you want me to FM news station by Public Radio International black radio telling it like it was made possible by a major Grant from The Corporation for Public Broadcasting with additional support from the James Smithson society and the Public Radio International program fund who's contributors include the Ford foundation and the John D & Catherine T MacArthur Foundation, Smithsonian.destination freedom we have been laughing. You could have gotten the point across. Black radio telling it like it was a history of radio and the African American culture. I'm lost. Who's calling? How are you? My roots are in gospel. Music. That's me with the Pilgrim Travelers Yeah, Boy least have a lot of fun on the road, especially in the South when you're traveling down there, you know the folks and take it to the house and feed you some time that can be detrimental cuz you eat too much when you get ready to go saying you can't cuz you're so full but that was all right. Your religion is always played a big role in black radio from the beginning radio listeners. Enjoy the African American quartet Squires and preachers praising God on the air back in the 1920s African-American Cortez began broadcasting live on local radio stations in Memphis. You could hear the IC Glee Club quartet. They were the first black American gospel group to broadcast in them. Cute long nail is the author of happy in the service of the Lord a book about African American gospel quartets in Memphis. They were really the precursor to the main group in terms of popularity to broadcast in Memphis, which was the spirit of Memphis. Certainly the most widely recognized of the Black American sacred gospel quartets to really appear out of Memphis Memphis quartet. Carnation milk from contented cows bring you spirituals Alden you in the famous fashion of the spirit of Memphis quartet. quartets were among the first form of black American music to be broadcast regularly over the airwaves partly because it was starting to become popular in the black community to a great degree but also because it was a safe form an acceptable form of black American Music at the same time that the IC Glee Club quartet was broadcasting over radio station in Memphis you had Ellington at the Cotton Club, which was doing some broadcasting that was a little bit more risky for broadcasters to some degree in to broadcast something safe like Sacred Music Call Donna barefield for they got together. 1921 James Hill started singing with the group in 1946. We were on WLAC are good morning. 6:45 % Away by Marsha cago, we get to singing in the morning. We have to go out and get breakfast and come back to the station and be recording maybe two year for our sometime during the day getting transcripts for all of the other 19 station ever had we come on in the Philadelphia at 5:05 in the morning. Anyone off San Antonio, Texas at 11:05 each night. So anyway, you went in the state. Just buddy. You could hear Fairfield that went on for 12 years. Certain African American gospel quartets with heard from coast to coast over the networks. Yes, it's Carolina in the morning. And you're hearing about it from Charlotte North Carolina. Now The Versatile Deep River boys turn to a lovely Negro spiritual Look Away in the heavens. I hope I'll join the back. See my mother see my mother and your friends the prayer band leader in the southern heirs. Hope that the light from the lighthouse will shine in your life and home until time shall end. This is the National Broadcasting Company RCA building, Radio City, New York. Elder Lightfoot Solomon michaux and His Radio Church of God first broadcast is happening. So I would 1930. Hey, hey, hey. He was known as a happy Amaya preacher and was a Coast-to-Coast favorite for decades. My precious one whether you believe it or not. Where does spinach? One of them hear the kind of words. That was Joyce. You can keep them still you must have your affection set on something. You must build your Hope on something more substantial than the things of this present life. Bernice Johnson reagon is the curator amiridis for the Smithsonian and author of mini works on the African American culture. She's also the founder and artistic director of the acapella quintet Sweet Honey in the Rock for her like many other African Americans of smell and sounds of Sunday morning a really sweet memories Sunday morning. You woke up and you could smell breakfast cooking. And we had to breakfast. I remember as a child one was country fried steak with gravy biscuits grits eggs. Or fried chicken with biscuit gravy egg. So you smell one of those getting underway in the kitchen and you heard the radio and the next strongest image I have is the Wings Over Jordan choir. And they would come on. And then Raven's Glenn Saddles, he would start his intro of mercy upon Me O Lord for I am undone. I am renting on most miserable when Night comes I wish for day and when the day breaks I long for the night again. I'm going to be I'm the only I healed my aching heart. Boring by gracious Mercy. There must be a saving power for my troubled soul, and they will go. Am I home? Nobody would just be a buzz? There was something coming out of this brown box, and it was me. It was just the most thrilling thing. We never miss the program at everybody. Listen to Wings Over Jordan. And everybody put a radio in the window. So the neighbors could hear there's Wings on the radio. Everybody had that didn't have a radio still got to hear when that's only time. They really shared the radio. I didn't share it. When the Shadow Pokemon. It didn't share it. When the Phantom to get more Wings hit this radio. Everybody's window went up and the radio went in the window. I see trouble. My name is George G Thompson. I'm the son of olive Thompson. Who was The Soloist for Wings Over Jordan? My mother sang with wings from its conception up into the mid-50s. The Wings Over Jordan was created and born here in Cleveland at the guess simony Baptist Church under the leadership of Glenn tea settles. He was a minister of Gethsemane Baptist Church, and he wanted to take the choir out and sing and the chief musician at that time was my grandmother Elizabeth narcissist is Tyson, and she told him no Revan we can't take the whole choir. So she chose 40 members and call them Wings Over Jordan. This is the first church of Deliverance Church of Love & Faith in Chicago. There was something in the air the first church of Deliverance began at Sunday broadcaster. 1934a Revan class H Cobbs there to let his choir sing Thomas Dorsey is gospel music. My name is Ralph Goodpasture. I'm the minister of Music at the first church of Deliverance in Chicago, you know Raven comes when he moved here is mother, but on the Pilgrim Baptist Mister Dorothy Malone dependable. Is Sally Martin belong to pill? So he and mrs. Martin started the National Convention of gospel choirs and choruses. Cancel Detention Center kissing that any of this man play from already and you going to bring me in to check no indeed forever, So I will try. Anybody want to remain standing As we sing for the evening hymn? Well understand it better by-and-by. Ralph Goodpasture is not the original minister of music. But he is the creator of the current format of the broadcast really think I'd be on television and I like the way he did his program and was a Master of Ceremonies and I wondered why we could have a Master of Ceremonies and have a halfway point let people know who we were in that and wrote for me and we tried it. Can we been doing it ever since I had no idea that so many churches have broadcast Ministries. I was shocked. I still name is ICD. I'm Amazed. I'm also amazed that the format to use because it's not pronounced many people don't you know, they broke theirs, but they don't know that black radio telling it like it was from Public Radio International. By the sixties there were local and syndicated religious programs on black radio all over the country. messages of the nation of Islam's honorable Elijah Muhammad reach thousands of African-Americans on black radio And the recorded sermons of preachers like dr. Martin Luther King jr. And the Reverend CL Franklin who was the father reason Franklin with being into black homes across the country. One memorable program was led by Reverend Ike presenting the our blessings with Reverend Ike. This is the hour of blessings broadcast with Dr. Frederick. Eikerenkoetter better known to many as Reverend Ike and 1965 rev and I decided to stop preaching Hellfire and brimstone instead. He told his followers that they should get their pride in the sky right now Ten Years Later is programs were broadcast on 1700 radio stations across the country. You are listening to Reverend Ike some years ago. God gave me the blessing plan to help the people financially because you know more people are having money problems than any kind of problem. So many times the money problem is the very thing that makes people sick and depressed. If people could get enough money to meet their needs and to pay their bills they feel better and a lot of them would get well and do better in life Reverend Shirley Caesar and many other ministers across the country use a local broadcast on black radio as an Outreach Ministry. Those of you in invisible audience and this is the day that the Lord has made we're adjusting right now. We have many many many visitors every Sunday morning as a result of the broadcast Chris Pratt time now here in the city of Durham. Those of you that are going through some critical times in your life. I want you to know that it got him not work out that problem. He's working on it. And all you got to do now is just purpose in your heart God. I'm just going to wait until my change come. I believe that if we can show our young people in some kind of way that there's something out there better than crack cocaine. They can have a field in broadcasting that they can be a gospel singer that they can achieve and succeed that they can be an engineer if we can show them that God is no respecter person. I believe that we can can I use the back? In most cases gospel announcers in black radio have much more freedom than their secular counterparts. They pick their own music all their own format and develop a business through community service. 96.3 WHUR 1029 that I'm going back twelve years 1983 and that Shirley Caesar title song from her album Jesus. I love calling your name Patrick Ellis gospel program in Washington DC and a lot of Market to find that there are black radio stations that aren't all gospel but they carve out a niche somewhere in their programming schedule to play gospel music. We're talking about the kind of station like the station like WHUR, that's not at all gospel station. It's been my experience that most of the program directors who come here basically tell me. Hey, you know, I don't really know that much about gospel. You got it. You've been doing a good job. Hey, it's your thing. You do it which is fine with me. I personally would rather program my own show. You know, I play my music spontaneously and I think that at least for me it works because it is a religious show. It is a show that centered around spirituality, you know Community is especially important, I think. because of the nature of the show So the lonely today. Would never end. Bubba confused and frustrated today that's gospel recording artist rev. They don't call her the queen nothing. She took James Cleveland without a song and made it hurt theme song and every day she come on The Re-Up with the call the inspiration to have she was not a religious announcer the time she was R&B but something happened. And that whole experience I with the riot and so forth and she became the voice of Black Detroit and I'll shut-ins. I'll never forget we're about to have a concert at Ford Auditorium with seat at the time 2009 hundred people and we went to her and ask for help and she got on the radio and told the Queens Community workers. Listen, my children to Cornelius are going down there at 4 and toriel it's going to cost $10. I might have some tickets here to take us a sense of place of space and I want you all to meet me there and in 2 days at concert was sold out. Hello, this is John and Vermeer Phillips husband and wife in Los Angeles, California on radio station AM 1460 a.m. Radio you're celebrating 38 years of singing gospel music to the community. Really we started in 1957 as a husband and wife team in the Los Angeles area spinnin records and praising God damn. Well, thank you very much for you at the main control and to you and radio and if you'll permit me to use this phrase, once again, I'll just said to you good morning disciples about the air on this is what was her decision part 1 is this is John members of The Gospel Music Workshop of America where the gospel announcers Guild as recording secretary and I have to be the sausage in it on over 600 announces Across America El the bishop Hobbs from Indianapolis, Indiana. He's chairman of the Gospel Music Workshop of America. Where you been in about 23 years. Elected officers for 18 years and Reese feel highly honored to be serving all the gospel announcers. So I'm calling DJ's but the DJ Johnny play records for money, but they had religious analysis. And then we found ourselves alone real known as gospel announcers in the radio broadcasting industry today. There are black gospel radio stations from coast to coast and thanks to them gospel artists have more exposure than ever before but the Edwin Hawkins singers started something in Northern California that put black gospel music and an even larger a old happy day. Heavy are play across the country on secular radio programs. Oh, Happy Day when Jesus walks and if you think that oh happy day Prescott fade on black gospel radio. Thank again gospel singer. Tramaine Hawkins is a witness actually and underground station. Not even a major station heard that particular album. It had been out for two years prior to it becoming a hit it caught on to regular radio stations through that underground station, and it was amazing how it took off. I mean that no one had a clue that this would ever happen. It just happened so quickly and I don't think quite frankly that the gospel announcers in the people in the industry is sports goggles concern really knew what they had. You know, sometimes it takes it it takes someone from the outside to really show you that you know, what what you have are you sitting on that they say you sitting on a gold mine and don't even know it and I think that's what happened and then when the secular industry got a hold to it and in a went crazy with it, then I don't people in the church, you know turned on us in and Criticizing that particular recording because it was played in clubs. It was played and in and joined so to speak and it was a course on on the secular radio everywhere because I'm happy. Azazel stories, I want to know if you can hear me say, since Oh Happy Day other black gospel artists have been able to cross over from gospel to secular formats Winans and Kirk Franklin and the family have been very successful at getting exposure. Even the urban radio announcers who play positive music are looking for. Something that sounds like the church. They're not looking for something that sounds like Urban Music with positive lyrics they're looking for church music. They want to hear the reason why we sing they want to hear you can make it by Candi Staton. They want to hear something that sounds like the church whose gospel song be encouraged has been programmed into secular radio formats across the country. Hallelujah We had no idea that be encouraged would turn into what it has. No way in the world. Could we have known but again it was the right time and the right song in the right place you're finding that the audience is changing that people are hurting and in all different kinds of ways that we're reaching out for something to heal and you find the radio stations all across the country are now putting in that inspirational moment or putting in that one or two inspirational Cuts in the morning or during to DriveTime in the evening and that is happening all over the country. It's not just a phenomenon in one or two areas. navigate to Back in the fifties and sixties FM was not the PowerHouse it is today. If you wanted to hear black music you listen to your favorite DJs on AM radio back, then most personality DJs with bigger than the station that had them put in the late 60s black oriented AM radio was influenced by the success of white top 40 for Matt's top 40 program hit song over and over every motor the personality of the station a little more than the individual DJ black station was like Debbie wrld, New York Knicks the technical tightness of Top 40 with highly talented black person out of the DJs and the R&B hits of the day. They called it Soul Radio. A man right now. Maybe she'll do me baby that's worth more than a billion dollars. It was literally a dream for me. It was kind of like, you know being on the farm team and ready to go to the New York Yankees. So I was in heaven when he was 19 Gary Byrd work on w w r l program director Jerry Bolden his own are experienced and black station W UFO and top 40 station wysl a demon perfect player for Jerry building steam. What's clearly wanted to do was to create a kind of pioneering concept of creating a very professional slick black radio Sound. I fit into that within the context that I had to work in. A format that was styled on that order. But at the same time had the the gist of black ready was well and six months. We were like in the top five stations in New York with this particular format develop the trade magazines of the time. I mean, I remember one of the McGavin report set w w r l literally the word whew with an! Because it was like this is unbelievable billboard stories all of that because it just had not happened. The Syndicate Social Club All the members of The Syndicate they don't bug me on February 23rd. I will be there and it's going to be a bad boy. Wind & Fire It's called power-station jump into the market with a w w r l style format Bobby Bennett remembers what it meant to be a wol soul brother and I was on cloud nine am a great job of the URL and at that time w o l w w r l they were probably the two and where I'll wvon Chicago they were probably the main R&B radio stations in the world and to be able to even talk to them was all that was having. Jackson 5 I think what made iStation so successful, LOL so successful. We didn't have just one personality. We had 6 personalities who all wanted to be number one. So that meant we wasn't competing against the other radio stations. We've been competing against each other, but we were call the Soul Brothers and we were always together Sunny Jim Kelsey worked at w w r l before coming to Washington. He said the premiere of wol was well-planned. We came to this town I'd say 10 days before we actually went on the air and most people didn't realize for 10 days. We rehearsed we practice we did everything possible to be ready when we hit the year that morning. I was the first one hit the year. I started at 12 noon. We were brand-new station, but we did was we brought in all the national commercials we could find I mean they were we were playing in free for everybody we can think of because when we hit the air we wanted to make the other stations think that we were so poor. Purple and so strong that when we hit the air we had all the national spots Coca-Cola the cigarette commercial everything not only that they made a sound good because all these commercials were produced they were no raggedy spots. We also in New York City carrot all our personalities in New York City and made promos. We did everything so that we would sound professional we through here. Chelsea got to get away from here. And if you remember the old Sam, we talked all the way through every record people would go to record store to buy record and they play it for me, but that was that was so radio the ability to talk and think to find something to talk about on that record. Nothing we did too. We always had a wreck. It's a little faster. The normal that way we can play more music you would have to be have a very sensitive year to realize what's going on. But I music was just a tench faster so that if we play the two and a half minute record, it would be like to 5 or something like that, but your listeners would never notice it and that's how we were able to play more music and do more commercial. Oh, yeah. We had a lot of things going for sweet little baby boy already on the sunny Jim John the phone so listen carefully. Here is wo Wells Whispering Santa. Guess his name and you win the wol Christmas Club here again is wol. Remember now he's a recording us and he has not a single right who you think it is, baby. Good good, Soul. Radio was well organized chaos, it sounded Wild and Free but it was tightly controlled Soul Radio work the Brilliance of the top black personalities at the time in to the Drake format. Bill Drake was a programming consultant. He basically created the second phase of formatting concept of top 40, which essentially took a jukebox premise. And play the 40 hits all over and over again producer of a New York radio program called the global black experience. It was really very Innovative. I think for the black radio / Drake folding idea that we were doing still maintain personality. So that was a key element in it that it maintain personality. and his krunchycroc Frankie Crocker the dipping your hip man was part of the Soul 16 at w w r l before becoming a wmca good guy was a New York top 40 AM station Frankie add a little color to the staff. One of my favorite song that we played here on WMC about you wondering how I knew about your plans to make an omelet and some play. Goodbye Fastrac in the city or the disk has used to go in on Monday morning into a meeting with the program director and we vote on records and course. I was still had my ties to WWII rally what was happening with rhythm and blues. And I said we need to play This Record and I think of a time it was My Cherie Amour by Stevie Wonder and then we can play that record is a great record and the program director said to me with unequivocally. Hey, we have five black records. We don't wanna confused as to who we are and I was thinking it shouldn't be about the color. Somebody skin should only be that the record is a hitting people listen to not only got no blacks with us until they knew who writes like that too. I just said if I ever get the chance program not going to matter what color the skin. The person is in the town. I'm going to play this WBLS New York in Black where you hear Carmen McRae Charles Mingus modern jazz quartet, Ray Charles old happening on the stereo and black WBLS 107.5 Frankie Crocker pool together all the elements of his background to create what he called the total black experience and sound at WBLS. Frankie Crocker was the nuclear bilderback format. You cannot take that from him and he shouldn't go to Bronson was one of the general manager of WBLS FM in New York Times was brilliant at selecting stuff. So we begin with my research and his gut to put that thing together, but it was Frankie's music. It was Frankie's concept. What I did was to what he did by Instinct and formulated into a process. I used to have your own students go out and fight area so that when I go cross over here and stand at the counters and see what records should be bought when we get to record stores report number to get the record companies report and I we would also send them into Holland to stand at the counters and weed. Covered some crazy thing a lot of black people bought a lot of white records people were buying the Beatles black people with buying a kiss that rock group. KISS black people were by Barbra Streisand Public Radio International. Paul Kelly WBLS New York number me it's Vikings ended 115 partly sunny this afternoon high in the mid-forties partly cloudy tonight low in the low 30s 48° in New York City to Monday, February 5th. 1973. Joe Cocker Woman to Woman. A BLS head by on in midday and they had Lamar on at night and Frankie was in the middle C Frankie like that. He won they have women on either side of him morning show hosts for New York's cd101. She used to work for Frankie at WBLS. But before she work there she was a fan at the time that he was programming with that line up with Kim Webb in the morning and then VY higginsen and midday then Frankie then Lamar Renee people thought that was very risky. He had two women on. Wow. And I do believe that the presence of those two women. I had a great deal to do with their success and their uniqueness at that time from WBLS. The blacklisting is specialist FM for fun music and its music of Bernard pretty pretty good living and on WBLS is a float through the afternoon. Yes. Yes, what would you like to come over here? So if you really want me gun control 1978 WBLS became the number one station in the Big Apple. They beat everybody on the air, but they weren't able to get the advertising dollars and stations under them. We're getting radio veteran ID Casselberry Frankie told me said it would you believe that we are the number one radio station in New York City. Number one station. The number one marketing and still there are some white advertisers would not have it. A lot of sponsors took the attitude that they were getting the black all this anyway. a lot of believe that What is any fool can tell you nobody can get the black audience like a black radio station can no rap black oriented radio stations were forced to find different ways to represent themselves to advertise instead of saying black radio. It would say adult contemporary Urban radio veteran programmer. Jerry Bolden the term Urban came out when stations that were missing out on time by wanted to get those time buys, but didn't want to be classified as ethnic there were time bicycle come down from certain agencies. That would be marked. No ethnic. I was panicking black well and urban station at that time might be able to get away with it not always but might as program director of WBLS in New York Frankie Crocker found that advertises need an education about his business. We had to go out and tell people that the blacks who listen to us. The average had two years of college and was making 3545 sand dollars a year. There was quite that we're listening to us and all these people are upward mobile people who were listening and would buy these things and then what was happening black people turned on where they worked cuz it wasn't somebody coming on with Jive top selling roaches in and cheap wine. You know, I'm saying you didn't need any credit and other people laughing and then feeling ashamed of the kinds of music they want they were proud. They were proud of the people on the radio. We're intelligent and could speak to them and could speak to anybody and they will probably turn to hate black stations BLS. You don't know what's happened. Then the whites would listen to it better music than this other stay. Another station is dying WBLS, New York. It is WBLS where black listening is special and if I may be so presumptuous. This is Stevie Wonder's next number one hit you are the sunshine of my life. On air personality Pat Prescott casting first kicked off this FM thing. Really? I believe influenced so much of radio the way that we know it today probably the only other radio programming that had a significant impact is Frankie clockers total black experience and sound what's the quiet storm by WHUR, you know those two program and philosophies. I think even today still have a profound impact on black radio. Hey brothers and sisters. This is Robert hooks WHUR as a new thing here in Washington. It's the sound of Black America the news Department recognizes the station's commitment to Broad and reshape your eyes into black society and its perceptions Howard University radio. WHUR will amplify the sound voices and experiences of Black America. We will be responsive to your needs tastes and desires. And I should know this is Phil Watson the general manager and I pleasure. Howard University one of the nation's Premier black institutions used it to FM radio station to create what they felt was an exciting learning environment Kathy Liggins use the lecture and student advisor. She eventually became general manager. We caught ourselves 360 degrees of Blackness at that time. And that's exactly what we were playing everything and just because something is black as you know does not necessarily fit into a black radio format programming programming is programming to fit a person's Lifestyle the thing that stuck out most in my mind was that when people came home in the evenings, they were more prone to one soothing relaxing music. Look up Lion store number one. Justin Bieber one of Cathy's most famous Innovations at WHUR was The Quiet Storm. It was hosted by one of the students Melvin Lindsey. It literally took the market by storm. This is Patrick Ellis right now. I'm the senior producer here at WHUR FM radio. I started at the station 25 years ago, 1971 and 1976 that city was taken by storm and eventually the country with this new night time radio format. Call The Quiet Storm. Why did it become so popular I guess really but you can probably best be summed up in and I'm paraphrasing it in Melvin's words when he said he was given the assignment of going on the air and he was not a radio announcer up until that point and Melvin Said to himself G. The only thing I know to do is to play some nice soft love music. During the evenings. And it worked. Once again, good evening. I Melvin Lindsey and welcome to the quiet storm. And since we've opened up this evening, we've been featuring the music from Marvin Gaye and certainly all condolences from WHUR. I go out to the family and friends of Marvin Gaye Here in the Washington area. There's too many of you cry. Melvin Lindsey did The Quiet Storm at WHUR for 9 years, then Donnie Simpson brought him to competitor WKYS under a million-dollar contract, but not the only other station to grab the quiet storm format. The format was copied all over the country WBLS New York relax with the Quiet Storm success of the New Black FM formats was in Hands by the change in black music and the black community. Nelson George is the author of the death of rhythm and blues and the devil take the point time in black music. He began having more ambitious kinds of Arrangements. That was at your of Marvin Gaye's doing is more expensive kids music also some jazz fusion type things or Grover Washington alot of miles and stuff. So the music was growing and it sounded better. It's kind of music and the better on FM upscale kind of radio which match the music of black music again was going through. Of great 50k car from the fire the sound of it was going from the grittier kind of Soul music two or more when it reflected a lot of the kind of sensibilities of middle-class black people. I also just the girl for the music itself. The Renaissance the ifm Renaissance people that they went for that. And I think a lot of people don't know the difference between FM and AM believe me, but they knew it was HIPAA to listen FM. So they did that is the strangest thing I've ever seen and experienced to transition from am to FM in Chicago leaves with red hair radio like a wvon we were the top station in the market and then one day they call to send showed us a reindeer at the bottom of the barrel the FM station BMX had eaten the sub they had eaten us up at alive not all the ATM personality jocks were able to survive the switch radio veteran Garibaldi that the people that run away and we just moved to a fan but it didn't happen like that. What happened was the FM station sprung up all the games are still on the air and they have their own staff and there was no place for them and then they have this thing. Well, we're wearing FM and we're different now, we don't we don't talk the same where that they were FM jock jock and it was really strange and I think as I look back on it now. I really was very upset and probably in some degree still am your brother Bobby Bennett. They kept all of the jocks out who had done AM radio. They just like acting like well now you can't be on that FM because you run a.m. And it really hurt me and hurt me quite a bit cuz I was out of radio for a long time. I continue to do commercials and production work, but I was out of being on the air for quite some time, but I don't know what that was. It was some kind of stigma that they attach to because you were on a m you could make the cut on FM which was totally outrageous. I mean, it was ridiculous, but it was like you're out of here to me. It was just like you're saying well, you know here I was it maybe I think I was 32 or 33 years old at the time and you're telling me I'm finish that I can't do this anymore. And this is what I'm trying to do. And basically that's what it was in the late 70s and early 80s. I was one of the people in black radio That was a proponent of this more music less talk and it worked the ratings went up. People said got the ticket man. They talk too much and it's station. I like the station that jamming more but we did was we kill the generation of upcoming DJ's Berry Mayo is now president and owner of mayo media consulting firm during all the 80s is there were not a lot of young guys and ladies coming up being able to cut their their teeth and small markets cuz everybody's trying to do this more music less talk and everybody's reading little learner cards, you know me and you know, what goes around comes around 10 years later now, we're looking for personalities and there are very few. If you look at the biggest Personalities in black radio, most of them were in radio prior to 1980. I mean Tom Joyner has got a syndicated radio show that beams Across America, but Tom has been in radio from 7. That's one of the reasons that can get done is because there are so few truly talented morning. This track is I can make a difference. special thanks to Olmsted Shaun Ross Rob Frankel, Marlo, Saturday and Alan Leeds Black radio telling it like it was was produced by radio Smithsonian. Jacquie Gales Webb producer Sonya Williams and Lex Gillespie associate producers. John Tyler production manager, John Paulson, and Matthew sakakeeny, post production engineer and Wesley Hannah executive producer research by Universal media and original music by David Silva soccer. You can write black radio radio Smithsonian MRC 645 Washington, DC 20560. Our internet address on the world wide web is www.trl.org for further study contact The Archives of African American music and culture in Indiana, university-bloomington black radio telling it like it was made possible by a major Grant from The Corporation for Public Broadcasting with additional support from the James Smithson society and the Public Radio International program fun. Who's contributors include the Ford foundation and the John D & Catherine T MacArthur Foundation special. Thanks to Sonic Solutions. PRI Public Radio International that does it for our mid-day program today? I hope you enjoy the program or going to be rebroadcasting the documentary look at the history of black radio at 9 tonight rebroadcast at 9 tonight on the FM news station. Today's programming is supported by Financial contributions from Minnesota Public Radio listeners. It doesn't permit day today like thank you for tuning in and we hope you'll be able to join us tomorrow tomorrow. We're going to hear from one of President Clinton's top economic advisers treasury secretary Robert Rubin speaking at the Commonwealth Club show a better look at what the Clinton Administration has in mind in terms of the economy that's coming up tomorrow. Thanks for tuning in today. I'm John Raby on Mondays All Things Considered Hennepin County's plans for a drug court. It's all things considered weekdays at 3 on the FM news station k n o w FM 91.1 in the Twin Cities. You're listening to Minnesota Public Radio. It was sunny Sky 30 degrees. The wind chill is a tab of at the FM news station kalw FM 91.1 Minneapolis-Saint Paul or Twin City weather forecast scattered snow showers or flurries through the afternoon with a high temperature in the low-to-mid 30.