An episode of a Radio Smithsonian documentary series titled “Black Radio: Telling It Like It Was.” Program narrated by Lou Rawls. Part 3, titled "Jack Cooper and Al Benson," focuses on Jack Cooper's "All-Negro Hour," which had it debut in 1929, and Al Benson, famous American DJ out of Chicago. Program contains pledge drive segments.
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6 minutes past twelve and welcome back to mid-day here on the FM news station. I'm Gary. I can coming up in just a couple of minutes. We're going to continue our series the history of black radio. They taking a look at the contributions of a couple of early early a radio Pioneers Jack Cooper and Al Benson and lots of archival tape interesting series hosted by Lou Rawls, you'll get to that just a couple of minutes. But Steven Smith is joined us once again here in the studio to Nigeria convince try to convince. So those of you listening to make a call to take a couple of minutes of your precious time and call and make a membership pledge so that we can continue to provide you with midday over the next year three. People are on the line now calling at one. 800-227-2811 Gary I was thinking watching a little bit of Television last night and I noticed something that if you watch television news, you can't have failed to notice it sweeps week.And that you know, if you think about it what we're doing now at Minnesota Public Radio amounts to our sweeps week in television. This is one of the weeks of the Year where the the new stations attempt to get as many people watching as they can so that they're Their audience numbers are the highest in town so that they can therefore charge more for the advertising which is how they pay their bills. Now there is absolutely nothing wrong with it. That's the way commercial broadcasting works and one of the things like it or not that they deal with every what a couple times a year is sweeps week couple times a year. 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Could have gotten the point across. Black radio telling it like it was a history of radio and the African American culture. I'm lost. You know grown up in a city like Chicago was quite a cultural experience, especially on the musical side. And there was so much going on in that City. Could you see Chicago is a home with some of the best music in America in the world for that matter? It's got the best jazz got the best blues. And of course, you can't even begin to talk about the gospel music that came out of that City the windy city was also the moment. That was Al Benson Jack Cooper was socialized medicine. Jack Leroy Cooper was America's first black disc jockey with the commercial is sustained program it all started in 1925. I had that time Negros one allowed in Washington DC radio station wcap, but you know what Cooper did Turn to scab around back was in pretended to be a delivery boy and he got into the building then he convinced in August related to be the straight man in the comedy at here Miss Gertrude Roberts Cooper picks up the story to the man agreed. This was his address into radio. And once all who was hearing them said you're doing is quite backwards. You should be the comedian and let the the Australian to the straight-line method to get $5 for the performance three times a week. But but that's how it all began. After his successful premiere on radio on Washington Cooper was determined to make it big in Chicago eventually bought time on foreign language station wsbc. And what he did is he fit into the ethnic radio scene in Chicago and met a fellow named Silverstein who have a station called wsbc and Silverstein's goal was to serve all of the ethnic communities in Chicago historian Mark Newman says that from the start Cooper set out to make a lot of money the way you did it is that you would buy time from the station then sell the time to advertisers develop your programming and your sponsors yourself. So all the radio station provided was the wherewithal and then you got all the money and what he did is he took care of his business on a very very professional level and that's how he succeeded. In 1929 who developed the all negro hour in Mirror the variety shows on the networks, but in future Cooper and other Black Talent by the 30s, mr. Cooper had quite a few live programs on the are his famous the first black do so, I can started one weekend in 1931 when the union pool The Pianist off Cooper's non-union show rumor. Has it the Jack card to hold in a piano bridge stuck in a turntable put the mic in front of it and continue this broadcast. Is there anyone? in the state of Colorado and then you know as a kid growing up in Chicago myself in the late Sam Cooke and Jerry Butler Gene Chandler the Dale the shylights and of course, maybe Jackson. She was the queen mother but we all started out some gospel music. This is where mr. Cooper became a very important conduit for us because he was a leader in the broadcast religious program in the black community. Use phone radio station secretary Florence Summers and she says Cooper introduced His Radio. Listen to Mahalia Jackson as well as many others. She started out at this church and nobody knew Mahalia at the time. I put because of the broadcast and especially with the blacks being so attracted to a different Church programs that's really was her beginning. Oh. Turn on TruTV handle down a Glock seem to be pointing down at the old book over that it says let's find missing relatives kind of Franklin a Fraser left Charleston, South Carolina. October 31st was last seen November 1st in Greensboro, North Carolina. We left there with his destination but hasn't been heard from since appeared at 12 use coupons missing person broadcast help locate more than twenty thousand people. That's a lot of people man. You're welcome to send a letter in the dressing to jacco Cooper 1331 West 11th Place, Chicago. Luckily for mr. Cooper uplifting his race also raised his income by the forties. He was grossing six figures retired. Whufc secretary Florence Somers known to most everybody. He owned a 55 apartment building near the place on for the University of Chicago, but he had to put it into a trust. So nobody would be aware of the fact that they were renting from a black owner. He built it this beautiful home. He had on the south side with only one bedroom cuz he didn't want his wife's family to start barging in on him. Many of his broadcast we're done from his home studio the mr. Cooper also was doing live broadcast from his mobile unit was a teenager when he was Jack Cooper. They did remotes from Calumet City on the strip in bars it on they have contests and I'd go out and set those up and act as a staff announcer on this is really really a great time. You're not being 17 and 18 years old and being in an ounce of a big fan of Chicago broadcast every year. broadcast Negro League Baseball until 1946 By 1947 he was even spinning R&B records. Although he hated the term just jockey you wanted to be call Commercial radio announcer. But no matter what you called him. He was on the road for 41 hours a week going for station. You can listen to Jack L Kuban Productions when it's 50 sponsors. He showed the nation that black oriented programming could make a lot of money in Chicago DJ Richard stand. During the. Of its height Jack must have had 15 or 14 satellites people that work for him that portrayed his type of thinking and so forth on radio. He had a white a projection. I guess a lot of white people didn't know he was black but to me and no no mistake about it into the average black person, but he never tried to portray himself as anything else except black. This is the voice of Jack L Cooper nickel time to make known to Governor Roy Collins of the State of Florida for his stand and his expressions with respect to the fact that regardless of what you want. Your race color or Creed is if a store is open to the public and taking the Public's money in any Department of that store. Everybody should be a quarter the same. Regardless his brother-in-law Bob Roberts Mississippi black people proud of the fact that a black man could talk good English could command to respect the way. He talked things that you said the way set up and he was a source of Pride for a lot of black people. Jack Cooper dominated black radio in Chicago until the end of World War II then there was a new guy on the air and he was a different sound. This is wges 1398 on the dial now it's time for your old friends and swing by after with swing and Sway and now here he is Al Benson. Thank you and good morning. Ladies and gentlemen hair. I am already in the whole check to bring to you 30 minute to read heart. Beat me. Bring up swings and now it's on with the show. And the name of our first owners would bring it to you here is rootbound doing time 10:15. My name is Herb Kent. I am in air personality and V-103. Chicago is expanding. We came close to having a million blacks in Chicago in the forties Along came out Benson a southern gentleman who maintained a very strange southern accent. Obviously, he wasn't white. He mispronounced words by the score. Do you said it would just tell her they came out of his mouth all that kicked him out that go to the Chicago Furniture Company where you get the best temperature and where you can get little or no money down and easy weekly payment your monthly payment will do it for you. That's a big Chicago Furniture Company 4228 Cottage Grove Avenue on Chicago's play Southside Eat'n Park at the same time. I have seen him with the mouthful of food to record be over. He just take and spit the food out of his hand and continue talk. I can Dismount all I was it was it was hilarious, but he was very very effective. Chicago furniture company and have to go back to music but you listen glad you're everything you are doing God Bless the Child that's got it on. Chicago radio veteran lucky Cordell says that in addition to Vince's unique style of delivery. It was his choice of musical selections that made him so popular with Chicago's new migrants from the south my family, you know who all migrated from the south. I mean when you came in the house that was no TV and usually the radio was on and it was evening and it was Al Benson the main thing that he had going was He played music that nobody else was playing that was nowhere else. They could hear this music, but they grew up with. Then him it would be the same thing. Someone coming from a foreign country and I was only one guy in town playing that music and there was a lot of these people, you know, I'm going to be instant instant tell you was an overnight success. He went on the air and word spread like wildfire. Have you heard this new guy? Just Al Benson. My name is Eddie. Ojay. I never wanted to be like Al Vincent because I felt like Al Benson now, I know better today was killing The King's English. You you couldn't get a record played in Chicago without seeing Al Benson. He had all the business tied up get all the furniture companies. You name it he had it and he was still talk a flat but he was rich and knew what he was doing and we didn't know. Al Benson was the King. This is WGN Chicago 12 in 4 hours time. Remember to be recognized you gotta be picking eyes and I don't hear is Big Joe Turner as it does change of up. Legendary disc jockey Jack the rapper Gibson remembers Al Benson. Well, what a lot of people didn't know I was a preacher. I had a church and he lived above the church in his name was Lena author Lena was his name and a guy was leaving for the Navy cuz this was like the end of the World War II that left a spot open. So I was church was on this station is so the owners came to Al and ask Alice it will rev Lena. Are you do the show on Sunday? Why not? Play some music some race music doing the rest of the week and make you some more money for the church. That's what they told me when they told him that he's off for the church has let me see what I can do. So he went in and asked his congregation. Would they allow him to play the devil's music? That was what he told him and he said but you know, they kind of grumbly said but they're going to give me money and it'll go into the coffers of the church. So the church folks say, yeah. Go to work for change your name. So he changed his name from Arthur Lena to Al Denson because the guy's name that he took the place of his name was Al renson something good. Then try the wonderful sausage Parker House. There's not there's none finer tasting hog Haus give you a flavor that just right taste that some today. This is a cool girl dog can have some here and now I promise music by The Platters doing the big pretender. Black radio telling it like it was from Public Radio International. His loyal listeners learn to trust him and therefore he could sell them almost anything Jack Gibson remembers how the old swingmaster could sell products better than anybody I would answer the phone for him. And that one particular time I can remember back in 1945. It was very fashionable for the black women of that day to wear fake fur called Mouton lamb and houses selling the code so fast, he was selling them out. Everybody was buying it. So phone call and the guy I was on the phone with smiling out Jacobs. So he said Jack would you tell how we just got another shipment of the Mouton lamb fur coats in so I said, okay and I whispered into Asia I said, I'll guess what? Smiling now just called and said he had shipment Mouton lambs and just got them 49 $95 down and $0.50 a week. That's going to be the new price. So as they are Jack I got you. I got you. I got you the old swing that to take care of it right now right now. Got it. Let me get on their stop. The record engineer said smiling just got a new shipment of mutton lamb fur coat and we just fell out laughing before he got off the program. They had sold every one of the hundred I guess it just bought but all the women were coming into the store thought that was a new fur coat up called mutton lamb fur coat Al misconstrued the word instead of saying Mouton lamb, he said button lamp. Every hour in the day you can have people say drink Canadian Ace there a 6999 Dropship golden goodness, and everybody say if you haven't tried Canadian and now I'm here is right place as it doesn't think that's entitled laundry in this party. Chicago disc jockey Richard stands developed His Radio nickname based on the success of Al Benson and they were friends at the time. I didn't want to turn it down some starts against me. So Vincent Carlos King of Swing. So I call myself the Crown Prince of disc jockeys and that was how that started and because of that little idea Benson and I began to travel all over the country together. He was teaching me about National advertising companies that Sarah and a national products that he had on station fact is Hilton Head Mountain Nationals on his shoulders than any of the disc jockey in the United States at that time and every practice talking animals fight list. Al Bensenville time from the radio station just like Jackie L Cooper and then bensenhaver broadcast schedule let him to hire another announcer salesman lucky Cordell. His demeanor was royalty. And as I told you he was rude when when beer sales with lagging a certain beer. I don't remember which one he would get a list of the lounges and Terrence didn't have that beer in stop and he would visit them with an Entourage of maybe eight or ten people nicely when he walked in everyone recognized him out Benson alabanza, you know, they would sit in and they would be scurrying around and he would say lesson about 10. Give me and my friends around a Budweiser in it and give everybody in the house of Budweiser. And the guys at mr. Benson. I must apologize we don't have but wiser up and it's talking you're white. You're don't have my bell and stock. Well, I tell you what cancel all of that. Come on. Let's go. We'll find some place where they serve our beer. I'll come back here when he gets it. He knew all the time that an average beer has the old swing matches popularity grew so did the black music industry Al Benson demanded first play on Mini record so that he could say that he broke the kids radio veteran Sid McCoy Benson became such a power and the record distributor that I told you that I work for he had to go around of Benson hat in hand her money to try to get the records played in Benson with really make him grovel, honey. It's fell over the dam in the name of Monroe passes and Monroe will talk about Vincent By blah blah and phone ring and believe that the girl. Evans Georgia that groveling and I mean everybody that's another witness to the power valve Benson in the music industry play the music that they want. In fact, he didn't even know the records man. I didn't even think of anything about the records. He was a Salesman for sulfide. You would have never promoted music for DJ and Motown records, you weren't successful just because you had money if you were not able to build a relationship with Al based on respect. He wouldn't take your money. Al Benson was as much a star as hard as he played. Al Benson boat all the Big Show's to Chicago's Regal Theater. He was quite a show me DJ jacket Jack Gibson remembers Vincent at the Bud Billiken parade and now would be the Grand Marshal in a parade every year cuz everybody was looking for albums and meeting him at Washington Park and I will tell everybody we going to have Big Bud Billiken parade. What have I to come on out here we going to get it on. Yeah, we going to do Washington Park and we going to do the thing of them. What else Wingmaster going to be doing it and I know you always want to be there with me. Come on down. Everybody be at we going to drink up all the hot dogs in the place and that was just say and you couldn't get in the park for all of the people on the Southside being in the park. Like Jack Cooper was amazed by one of Vincent's stunts. He hired an airplane and flew over, Mississippi. And drop things a free my people and all this kind of stuff. I didn't even want to ride a train through Mississippi. Let no fly over it. He thought of the Negro race to me. He talked blackstaff, whatever you wanted. You could have cheated if you put an effort into it and I believe this making very much noise, but opening doors when the shaperate was Jem crying black people. I am broke that down. I got on the phone one day and told him I want to make reservation and I say this is what is your name? I said, I don't ski. The donuts and said to me I had a cat Blackie said that where you going that's why you think I'm going I'm going upstairs. So I got upstairs and he had to wait up came over to see me. He says, I'm sorry. We also must be some mistake every night club in Chicago recently and she wrote to us that we received after he passed away and within that letter is States. I want my children to be close to God because my father was an ordained minister and he's as I want them to get closer to God. And how God will put them on the trail that they need to be with in life and he also stresses in there. I want them to take voice lessons because with an entertainment they can go everywhere. They want to with in life. Albertsons radio Korea ended in 1963 Jack Cooper retired in 1961 before they died Chicago was known at the black radio capital of the world. Do they never work together both of their career set the stage for the future of radio for African Americans that use radio for themselves and for the good of the black community day, sir, Jackie L Cooper was the first Canal Benson Hill swingmaster. He was the flashes. special thanks to Mark Newman AJ Parker and the Chicago historical society Black radio sounded like it was was produced by radio Smithsonian. Jacquie Gales Webb producer Sonia Williams and Lex Gillespie associate producers. John Tyler production manager, John Paulson, and Matthew sakakeeny, post production engineers and Wesley Horner executive producer research by Universal media and original music by David Silva soccer. You can write black radio radio Smithsonian MRC 645 Washington, DC 20560. Our internet address on the world wide web is www.trl.org for further study contact The Archives of African American music and culture in Indiana University, Bloomington black radio telling it like it was made possible by a major Grant from The Corporation for Public Broadcasting with additional support from the James Smithson society and the Public Radio International program fund who's contributors include the Ford foundation and the John D & Catherine T MacArthur Foundation special. Thanks to Sonic Solutions. Bri Public Radio International series on the history of black radio will continue next Monday here on midday a reminder that you can hear the series as well Saturday evenings at 7:30 on the FM news station still to come during this hour the Gettysburg Address Steven Smith here to help you try and raise a little money for the station. I have to say listening to that show. I am reminded to how desperately midday needs a new theme you know that Kong thing that you start off with every hour is pretty lame when you compared to some of the stuff. I need a little something snap. You need something with a BackBeat they certainly given the kind of funky style that you bring to the show. I found that I mean being in radio, I'm somewhat interested in the subject. I having lived in the south side of Chicago. I'm somewhat interested in the subject. That was just great. That was a fascinating material and I can honestly say that there is no place else you are going to hear that kind of substitutive enjoyable imaginative use of radio to tell a story now frankly. They're telling radio story but the same kind of thing happens another documentaries and other reports you hear that throughout the day on Minnesota Public Radio. So the message is if you liked it and if you like it we need to hear from you because during this membership week is the time that we sign people up to be contributing supporters of this Radio Service one 800-227-2811 1 800-227-2811 and Gary if we can raise enough money, maybe we can get a you know, some sort of 5-piece band into the studio and a real Orchestra the midday Arkansas. Yeah. I mean, I realized the last time I basically had what a gun and a marimba that do that thing will do something a little But it was one of those big guy Hammond organs or maybe some some bass players and stuff pretty traditional here on the midday program though, you know, cuz you're thinking the direction I'm going isn't quite appropriate for anybody on the line with those of you who listen to mid-day. We need you to Rally around here a little bit a lot of you. I know use this program over the noon hour during your lunch hour as you're out driving around having lunch this that and the other thing need to hear from you. If you enjoy a good quality news programming you get a full hour of it every day from 11 to noon, and then of course over the noon hour pretty nice variety of things here. We have documentaries like the programme just heard like the programs that Stephen Smith puts together. We have speeches National Press Club will be coming up later this week. A lot of you enjoy the speeches from the Press Club the appearances call in programs tomorrow to go to call. Program and I know a lot of you have actually called in with your questions and comments and a good many others have tried and got in the Busy Signal. Well, no busy signal right. Now. The important thing is that whatever if you enjoy this programming we need to hear from you with a membership pledge 2895 people have already called and we're closing in on 2900 help us along here. If you would please to to 72811 in the Twin City area, 227-2811. If you're calling from outside the Twin Cities, all you need to do is call us at one eight hundred and then to to 72811 waiting for you and hopefully your neighbor will join you but right now it's up to you if absolutely silent in the phone room at the moment, you know, I'm on like commercial radio stations in this town and then really any other time Minnesota Public Radio can take an hour in the middle of the day and present a you know, a hodgepodge of materials some days and other days one single topic occurring throughout An hour devoted to a single subject and our devoted to a single documentary subject or even two documentary subjects. Absolutely unique won't find it elsewhere. If you listen to this kind of material if the middle of your day as it is for me if your middle middle of the day is often marked by the pleasure of hearing a speech and its entirety from the national Press Club from the town hall Forum wherever if you like that kind of thing you have to help us pay for it because none of it is free your friends, perhaps certainly your neighbors have called this radio station and and pledged their support this morning. We have heard so far this morning from Ben Matic of Maplewood calling in and renewing his membership Gretchen Hall Minneapolis calling as a new member to Minnesota Public Radio at Cleveland of Plymouth. Also a new member calling in Marcia Bixler calling from Rochester, Minnesota to become a new member Jeff Hardy from Rosemount becoming a news new member and Christine Taylor of Duluth. Becoming a new member of Minnesota Public Radio today joining what? It looks like 686 people so far in this drive in this third day these three days have become new members 1726 renewals 483 additional contributions made, but Gary 0 people on the line at the motor waiting for the Gettysburg address and that's coming up. I'm sure they've never heard it before and that is going to come up. This is Lincoln's Birthday. Happy Birthday Abe and we thought we would commemorate the birthday today with the reading of the Gettysburg address at least part of it. Little Ida the kind of wacky stuff. We do. Give us a call with your membership plaid. I think it may be Steven that all the men all the midday listeners are signed up and members. We were talking earlier about what a responsible group they are and some of them I think took umbrage at your you're insulting. The gong is a certain community of Kong Community, whatever your circumstance. So if you haven't had a chance to call us do give us a call. We need your membership sport lot of you joined last year at this time during our February membership drive. We were talking at that time about the the loss of federal funding. Well, it happened about $350,000 worth in the money isn't coming back. We need your continued support So if it's time to renew why not ring this up right now and take care of that business and we will be glad to have you we need to have you for another full year one caller on the line one of your fellow midday listeners on the line waiting for you now to see Ford 22728 11 22728 11 or one 800-227-2811, you know Steven I bet if there's no way to prove this week or so I can mouth off about this but I would be willing to bet huge amounts of money that if we knew. You know people who aren't members yet if we knew who they were and just swing by the house. By rang the doorbell said, hey understand you listen to mid-day. Yes, we do. This Minnesota Public Radio kind of want to become a member at 66 box. So just fill out a check and pay on a monthly basis. Yes, but on the other hand most people would probably be horrified to see what we actually look like faces made for radio this kind of drive by pledging could be kind of danger. Absolutely. Three. People are on the line now Gary. I think you're right. If we if we did just knock on doors and say look, you know, you listen give some money people would do it one thing that I think happens if people assume well, this is they do this a couple of times a year. They've got a lot of members over there. They don't need me. The fact is in an environment where Federal funding is on the decline an environment where we are constantly coming up with new and creative ways to figure out how to pay for this broadcast service. One thing that is also true. Is that corporations who give money to US foundations who contribute money to us? What diminishing federal funds there are all of those were most of those tend to be predicated on knowing that people actually listen the old days where you could put something on the air and no one listened and you can keep getting money for it from some Source somewhere are over. Believe me. And one way when absolutely fundamental way. We prove that our the people in our community value what they get from Minnesota Public Radio is through this kind of fundraising effort on the radio membership week. I should add Gary that, you know, it's not just people calling their contributions that help make membership week were it's also a people in the community the volunteers who were in the phone room now answering the phones and only four people are on the line now many more lines available and also companies in the community that help us by one of the things contributing food example this afternoon Atrium catering International provided a bunch of just absolutely wonderful box lunches for volunteers. For those of us who are engaged in trying to convince you to become a member. And also we have some great torts downstairs apparently by Rena do Saba torts. And I know I have a headphone News-Gazette the wrong and I apologize to you. But the point is there is there is a lot behind this entire membership ever left behind this pledge week Machinery to make it easy for you to call at 1 800-227-2811 and take just a couple of minutes to become a member of the last call here where you got the Gettysburg Address coming up momentarily at we've got four callers on the line really need to hear from you. If you have not yet had a chance to call it. It just does is Steven said just takes a minute or two of your time. Lots of volunteers are here. We have a home huge Bank of phones. No Busy Signal's you'll be able to get right through show your support for good-quality news and Information Program. We've got lots of premiums that that we talked about you're going to hear more about that. The week and those are nice. It's a nice little inducement. Well, thank you gift, but the important thing if the service is useful to you if you find an hour news summary is something that you want to have available when you can. Listen, if you like documentary speech is calling programs over the noon hour if you're waiting now for Talk of the Nation with Ray Suarez, you think that's a good program now is the time to show us that support with a membership pledge to to 72811 or 1 800-227-2811. Today of course is Abraham Abraham Lincoln's birthday Lincoln considered to be one of the nation's greatest presidents. If not, the greatest president was born on February 12th, 1809 used to celebrate his birthday and George Washington's birthday on the 22nd for that matter on the actual birthdays these days the official celebrations are rolled into President's Day next Monday never the last we thought that we would stick to your condition today and celebrate to Abe Lincoln's birthday. So here is part of Abraham Lincoln's most famous speech the Gettysburg Address delivered in July of 1863 following the historic Union victory at Gettysburg to turn the tide of the Civil War. It is read by actor Sam Waterston four score and seven years ago. Our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that Nation or any Nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are Messier on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that their Nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long. Remember what we say here, but can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to The Unfinished work which they have thus far. So nobly carried on it is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead. We take increased Devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion. That we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. That this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom. and that government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth that reading Italy Gettysburg Address by actor Sam Waterston on the PBS series. The Civil War was there today by monitor radio man. We saw in honor of Abe Lincoln's birthday. It would be worth broadcasting here on midday. the Gettysburg Address July of 1863 Well that does it for our mid-day program today. We'd sure like to thank you for joining us through the hour and especially those of you thanks to those of you who've been calling in with your membership support. That's what makes this kind of thing possible in that. We hope that those of you not yet had a chance to call us we'll do so in that number for to pledge your support is 22728 11227 2811. If you're calling from outside the Twin Cities, the number would be one 800-227-2811. Today's programming is supported by Financial contributions from Minnesota Public Radio listeners matter fact, each day is programming is supported by listener contribution. So hope to hear from you now, what do we have on tap for tomorrow? Well course tonight the folks down and I will be going to their political party caucuses and among other things will be expressing their preference for president. And all the focus of course is on the Republican side since President Clinton is unopposed tomorrow. We're going to try to sort through just where are the Republican candidates stand on the issues. We are have not been visited by Presidential campaigns presidential candidates and probably won't be at least for the most part during this year. But then we thought we would help you sort through just where candidates stand joining us will be activist Sarah janecek and Tom Horner and you'll have the opportunity call him with your specific questions that's coming up on midday tomorrow Gary I can thanks for tuning in today. I'm Andrei codrescu. Join me John Raby and the Washington crew for the news and long looks into the human soul. It's all things considered everyday at 3 on the FM news station k n o w FM 91.1 you're listening to Minnesota Public Radio. We will Sunny Sky 25°. The wind chill now is 12° at the FM news station kalw FM 91.1 Minneapolis-Saint Paul are Twin City weather forecast sunny skies through the afternoon with a high temperature in the mid to Upper twenties partly cloudy skies tonight with aloe from 10 to 15.